Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 3.djvu/442

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430

��SCORE.

��exactly the same as that now in use. The two upper Staves were occupied by the Violin Parts ; the third Stave by the Viola ; and the lowest, by the Bass, figured for the Organ, or Harpsichord. With regard to the other Staves, less uniformity was observed. Seb. Bach wrote Real Parts for so many Solo Instruments (now often obsolete), that the reduction of his Scores to a fixed type was impossible. Handel, on the contrary, re- stricted himself, as a general rule, to the Instru- ments which formed the nucleus of the combina- tion afterwards known as the Classical Orchestra. It was not often that he employed all these together, even in his grandest Choruses; but, with the exception of the Clarinets, unknown in his day, he used them all, at different times. In the disposition of his Scores, he adopted two distinct methods : either placing the Brass In- struments at the top of the page ; below these, the Oboes and Bassoons ; then the Violins and

��SCORE.

Violas ; and below these, again, the Vocal Parts and the Instrumental Bass, figured for the Organ : or he headed the page with the Violins and Violas, and placed the Brass Instruments, the Wood Wind, the Vocal Parts, and the Bass, in order below them. Most of his Oratorios were arranged upon the former plan ; and most of his Italian Operas, upon the latter. But, there are excep- tions. In some parts of ' Israel in u3Egypt/ the highest place is assigned to the Violins ; and, in some parts of Ariadne ' and ' Arminius,' to the Wind Instruments. In a few cases, separate Staves are allotted to the Stringed Bass, and the Organ. Sometimes, the direction, ' Tutti Bassi,' indicates that the same Stave serves for the Stringed Bass and the Bassoons. The Violon- cello and Double Bass rarely occupy separate Staves, unless the former plays an obUigato Part. The following schemes will serve as examples of the general arrangement.

��J. S. BACH.

�Mass in B Minor,

�Passion ace. to S. Matthew,

�Mass in D,

�Miits in F,

�Cltristmas Oratorio,

�' Gloria.'

�Introduction.

�' Quoniam.'

�Kyrie.

�Pastorale.

�Tromba Ima

�CORO Imo CORO 2ndo

�Corno di caccia

�Flauti 1, 2

�Flauti 1. 2

�Tromba2iida

�Fl.1,2 Fl.1,2

�Fagotto Imo.

�Oboi d'amorel.2

�Oboi d'amore 1, 2

�Tromba 3za

�Ob. 1, 2 Ob. 1, 2

�Fagotto 2ndo.

�Fagotto

�Oboi da caccia 1. 2

�Tyrapani

�Viol.l Viol.l

�BASSO SOLO

�Violino Itno

�Violino Imo

�Flauti 1, 2

�Viol. 2 Viol. 2

�Continuo

�Violino 2ndo

�Violino2ndo

�Oboi 1. 2

�Viola Viola

� �Viola

�Viola

�Fapottll.2

�S- A S. x

� �SOPRANO I. \

�Org. e continue

�Violitiolmo. Vio!ino2ndo. Viola

�A.) A.) T. f T. f B. J B. J

� �SOPRANO II. / ALTO s TENORB I

� �SOPRANO I. "\ SOPRANO II. 1

�Org. e Basso Org. e Basso

� �BASSO ) Continuo

� �ALTO >

� � � � �TEXORK I BASHO )

� � � � �Continue

� � � � �G. F. HANDEL.

�Hallelujah.' Messiah.

�'How excellent,' Saul.

�'Wise men flattering,' Judas Mach.

�Occasional Overture.

�Overture. Oiho.

�' Lascia amor '

Orlando.

�Second Hautboy Concerto.

�First Organ Concerto.

�Tromba 1

�Trombone 1

�Corno Imo

�Tromba Ima

�Violino Imo

�Violino Imo

�Violino Imo

�Oboe Imo

�Tromba 2

�Trombone 2

�Corno 2ndo

�Tromba 2nda

�Violino 2ndo

�Violino 2ndo

�(concertino)

�Oboe2ndo

�Tympant

�Trombone 3

�Flauto Imo

�Frincipale

�Violino 3zo

�Viola

�Violino 2ndo

�Violino Imo

�Violinol

�Tromba 1

�Flauto 2ndo

�Tympani

�Viola

�Oboe Imo

�(concertino)

�Violino 2ndo

�Violino2

�Tromba 2

�Oboe Imo

�Oboel

�Oboe Imo

�Oboe2ndo

�Violino Imo

�Viola

�Viola

�Tympani

�Oboe 2ndo

�Oboe 2

�Oboe2ndo

�Fagotti

�(ripieno)

�ORGAN on 2

�CANTO \

�Oboel

�Fagotti

�Violino Imo

�Fagotti

�BASSO SOLO

�Violino 2ndo

�Stares

�ALTO ( TENORE (

�Oboe 2 Fagotti

�Violino Imo Violino 2ndo

�Violino 2ndo Viola

�Bassi

�Tutti

�(ripieno) Oboe Imo

�Basso

�BASSO J

�Violino 1

�Viola

�Tutti Bassi

� � �Oboe2ndo

� �Bassi

�Violino 2

�SOPRANO SOLO

� � � �Viola

� � �Viola

�Bassi

� � � �Fagotto Imo

� � �CANTO \

� � � � �Fagotto 2ndo

� � �ALTO f

� � � � �Basil

� � �TENORE f BASSO J Bassi

� � � � � � ��When Orchestral Scores became more compli- cated, the process of reading them was greatly facilitated by careful methods of grouping. In Italy the Violins were usually placed at the top of the page ; then the Wood Wind, arranged ac- cording to the pitch of its component Instruments; then the Brass Instruments ; and in the lowest place, the Bass. In Germany the complete Stringed Band was generally placed at the bottom of the page ; next above this the Wood Wind ; and over this the Brass Instruments, with the

��Tympani in the highest place : or the Brass In- struments immediately over the Stringed Band, and the Wood Wind at the top of the page. Sometimes the Horns were placed between the Clarinets and Bassoons ; and many other little peculiarities were affected by individual Com- posers : but the general plan was pretty closely observed. Mozart generally followed the Italian method, in his Italian Operas, but adhered to the German plan in 'Die Zauberflote,' and the greater number of his Symphonies. Beethoven preferred

�� �