Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 3.djvu/498

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436

��SHAWM.

��wherein it vibrates unconstrained. This is ex- actly the device still retained in the bagpipe, and nowhere else. It possesses, according to the same writer, six holes for the three middle lingers of either hand, with a single hole covered by means of a key for the right little finger. This would give the scale of the musette or shepherd's pipe.

The chief interest of the name is due to its use in the Prayer-book version of Psalm xcviii. 7,

With trumpets also and shawms, shew your- selves joyful before the Lord the King.' The Authorised Version gives this 'With trumpets and sound of cornet.' Dr. Stainer, in ' The Music of the Bible,' argues that the former of these at least is a mistranslation. The original Hebrew words are chatsotsroth and shophar. The passage is translated in the Septuagint iv ffd\-ntyiv lAa- TCUS KCLI (fxavrj ad\iriyyos Kfparivrjs, and in the Vulgate 'in tubis ductilibus.et voce tubae cornese.' The chatsotsrah is obviously the trombone, which it will be shown by other evidence is of extreme antiquity ; the shophar is in both Greek and Latin versions described as the ' horn-trumpet or ramshorn,' well known to have been used in Jewish festivals, whence in Numbers xxix. i a feast day is called 'a day of blowing the trumpets,' and in Joshua vi. 4 ' seven trumpets of ramshorns ' are minutely described as preceding the Ark. [W.H.S.]

SHEPHERD'S PIPE. A name given to the pastoral oboe or musette. It was an instrument with a double reed like that of the bagpipe chaunter; and seems occasionally to have been combined with a windbag as in the latter instru- ment. It was made in several sizes, constituting a family or ' consort ' similar to the viols, re- corders, and other instruments. Its origin in the simple reed is well given in Chappell's ' History of Music,' vol. i. p. 259.

An excellent drawing of its various forms, with the method of holding it, is to be found in a

  • Traite" de la Musette ' by Jean Girin of Lyon,

1572, where it is distinguished from the 'Cro- morne ' and ' Hautbois.' The bagpipe form with drones and windbag is also engraved, and inter- esting details are given as to celebrated makers ; many of whom, like the 'luthiers' of Cremona, seem to have handed down their reputation to their descendants. It appears to have had six holes, and the rudimentary scale and compass of the Oboe ; though, of course when played from a bag, and not with the lips, the upper harmonic register must have been deficient. [W.H.S.]

SHEPPARD, or SHEPHERD, JOHN, Mus. Bac., born in the early part of the 1 6th century, was a chorister of St. Paul's under Thomas Mulliner. In 1542 he was appointed Instructor of the choristers and organist of Magdalen Col- lege, Oxford, which office he resigned in 1543, was reappointed to it in 1545, and held it until 1547. He was a Fellow of the College from 1549 * I 55 I - ^ n April 21, 1554, having then been a student in music for 20 years, he supplicated for the degree of Mus. Doc., but it does not appear whether he obtained it. John

��SHIELD.

Day's ' Morning and Evening Prayer,' etc., 1560, contains two Anthems, a 4, by him ' I give you a new commandment,' and 'Submit yourselves.' The former is reprinted in the 'Parish Choir.' Another book of Day's, the Whole Psalms in foure parts,' 1563, has a 'Prayer' by him, 'O Lord of hostes.' Hawkins prints a motet in 3 parts by him ' Steven first after Christ for Gods worde his blood spent,' and a melodious little ' Poynte ' a fugal piece for 4 voices of 7 bars length. Burney (ii. 565) complains that the mo- tet is not a good specimen, and prints another, 'Esnrientes,' for 5 voices from the Christ Church MSS., on which he pronounces Shepherd to have been superior to any composer of the reign of Henry VIII. Much of his church music is pre- served in the Music School, Oxford ; an Anthem and 39 Latin Motets and a Pavin and Galliard for the lute are among the MSS. at Christ Church, Oxford. In the British Museum (Add. MSS. 15166, 29289, 30480) are treble parts of many of his English compositions, amongst them 2 M. and E. Services with Creed ; 2 Te Deums and Magnificats, 2 Creeds, and 7 Anthems. The Add. MSS. 4900, 29246, contain 4 pieces with lute accompaniment, and Add. MSS. 17802-5 has no less than 4 Masses 'The western wynde/ 'The French Masse,' 'Be not afraide, ' and 'Playn song Mass for a Mene ' ; 4 Alleluias, and 10 Latin Motets, all for 4 voices complete. The library of the Sacred Harmonic Society (no. 1737) possesses 4 Latin motets, and (no. 1642) a 'First Service ' by him. Morley in his 'Introduction' includes him amongst ' famous Englishmen.' The date of his death is unknown. [SCHOOLS OFCoMp.iii. 271.] Another John Shepherd, possibly a son of the above, was sworn a Gentleman of the Chapel Royal, Dec. i, 1606. (Rimbault's Old Cheque- book, p. 43). Perhaps it was he who added a Kyrie to Johnson's service in G, in the Cathedral Library, Ely. (See Dickson's Catalogue, 32, 37.) Perhaps, also, he is the 'Thos. Shepherd' of Tudway (iv. 72). [W.H.H.]

SHERRINGTON, Mme. LEMMENS-. [See LEMMENS, vol. ii. p. 1 20.]

SHERRINGTON, JOSE, younger sister of Mme. Lemmens-Sherrington, born at Rotterdam Oct. 27, 1850 ; studied at Brussels under Mad. Meyer-Boulard and Signer Chiriamonte, and soon showed a gift for florid singing, and a very fine shake. In 1871 she appeared in London and the Provinces, under the auspices of her sister. In 1873 made a tour in Holland, and then returned to this country, where she has since established herself as a concert singer, and is in much request. Though gifted with much dramatic talent Miss Jose Sherrington has never appeared in public on the stage. Her voice is a good soprano reaching from A below the stave to E in alt. [G.]

SHIELD, WILLIAM, son of a singing-master, was born in 1748 at Swallwell, Durham. He received his first musical instruction, when 6 years old, from his father, but losing his parent three years later, he was apprenticed to a boat-builder at North Shields. His master however per-

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