��longer satisfy : full and elaborate accompaniments, having a beauty of their own apart from the voice, are now looked for. And although exception has been taken to this development of the accom- paniment as a device to conceal poverty of melodic invention, it cannot be gainsaid that the charm and interest of a^ song are enhanced by a well conceived and appropriate pianoforte part. Again, no song can be really good without correct ac- centuation and emphasis ; but how few composers seem to have studied this element of composition. If the reader will only turn to the article on ACCENT in this Dictionary, he will soon perceive its immense importance. 1 It is much to be desired that we had in English some work like M. Matthis Lussy's excellent Treatise on Musical Expression. 2 Clear rules will be found there for the correspondence between the musical rhythm and the verse rhythm, with examples showing how the sense of the musical phrase may be destroyed, if it be interrupted by a new line of the verse, and how the verse in turn may be marred by the interruption of rests or pauses in the musical phrase. There the student may learn why the strong and weak accents of the music should coincide with the long and short syllables of the verse, and the cases in which departures from this rule are justifiable. There also the proper relation of musical cadence to grammatical punctuation, and many another point in the art of composition, are illustrated by in- structive examples.
In connection with essential requisites of the Song, much might be said about the sound of the words in the voice part, about the incidence of open words on certain notes, and careful com- binations of consonants. Much, too, of the duties and responsibilities of the singer with regard to accentuation and phrasing. But the discussion of such topics would carry us far beyond the history of the Song, and the space already tra- versed is more than wide enough.
To the deficiencies of this article no one can be more alive than its writer ; and no one can more acutely feel that the investigation offers a fitting field for the highest faculties of musical research and exposition. In the difficulties inevitable in studying the Songs of those nations with whose language she was not acquainted, and also in procuring materials from abroad, the writer has been much helped by friends, among whom she would gratefully mention Mr. Mazzucato, Miss Phillimore, M. Mathis Lussy, M. Gustave Chou- quet, Mme. Blaze de Bury, Don Francesco Asenjo Barbieri, Sefior Bernardo Moreira de S, Mr. J. A. Kappey, Mr. Barclay Squire, Mme. Lind-Goldschmidt, Mine, de Novikoff, and Mr. Ralston. [A.H.W.]
SONGE D'UNE NUIT D'ETE, LE (A Mid- summer Night's Dream). A comic opera in 3 acts, a gross caricature of scenes in the life of Queen Elizabeth and Shakspeare, with no rela-
1 Examples, for instance, are given from Schubert of declamatory and interrogative accents.
2 Trait6 de 1'expression musicale, par M. Matthis Lussy. Paris, t88L
tion to his play. The words are by Rosier and De Leuven, and the music by Ambroise Thomas and it was produced at the Ope'ra Comique April 20, 1850. [G.]
SONGS WITHOUT WORDS. The title of certain well-known Pianoforte pieces of Mendels- sohn's, first published in English as 'Original Melodies for the Pianoforte,' and in German as ' Lieder ohne Worte.' Of the latter title, Songs without words' is a translation. [See vol. ii. P- I35-] [<*-]
SONNAMBULA, LA. An Italian opera in 2 acts; libretto by Romani, music by Bellini (written for Pasta and Rubini). Produced at the Teatro Carcano, Milan, March 6, 1831 ; at the King's Theatre, London, July 28, and at Paris, Oct. 28 of the same year. At Drury Lane (with Malibran) in English, under Italian title, May I, 1833. [G.]
SONNLEITHNER, a noted Viennese family of musical amateurs. The first, CHRISTOPH, born May 28, 1734, at Szegedin, came to Vienna at 2 years old and learned music from his uncle Leopold Sonnleithner, choir-master of a church in the suburbs. He also studied law, became an advocate of some eminence, was em- ployed by Prince Esterhazy, and thus came into contact with Haydn. He composed several symphonies, which his friend Von Kees (often mentioned in Haydn's life) frequently played with his orchestra ; and also 36 quartets, mostly for the Emperor Joseph, who used to call him his favourite composer. His church-compositions, remarkable for purity of form and warmth of feeling, have survived in the great ecclesiastical institutions of Austria, and are still performed at High Mass. Christoph Sonnleithner died Dec. 25, 1786. His daughter, Anna, was the mother of Grillparzer the poet. His son IGNAZ, Doctor of Laws and professor of commercial science (ennobled 1828) was an energetic member of the Gesellschaffc der Musikfreunde, and took part in their concerts as principal bass-singer. At the musical evenings held at his house, the so-called 'Gundelhof,' in 1815-24, in which his son, Leopold, took part as chorus-singer, Schu- bert's ' Prometheus,' though only with piano-ac- companiment, was first heard (July 24, 1816), as were also the part-songs 'das Dorfchen* (1819), 'Gesang der Geister uber den Wassern* (1821), the 23rd Psalm for female voices (1822). The Erlkonig ' was sung there for the first time on Dec. I, 1820, by Gymnich. Ignaz died in 1831. A second son, JOSEPH, born 1766, de- voted himself with success to literature and the fine arts, and in 1799 was sent abroad by the Emperor Franz to collect portraits and bio- graphies of savants and artists for his private library. During this tour he made the acquaint- ance of Gerber and Zelter. In 1 804 he succeeded Kotzebue as secretary of the court-theatres, and as such had the entire management of both houses till 1814, and also of that 'an der Wien' till 1807. He directed his endeavours principally to German opera, and himself wrote or translated