�SOUNDS AND SIGNALS.
�� ��The Bb of the trumpet is however never used. Many of the English signals are intrinsically good, while many are quite the reverse; and they are noted down without any regard to the manner in which they should be played. A com- parison with the sounds used by the German army (especially the infantry signals) shows how superior in this respect the latter are, the rests, pauses, marks of expression, and tempi being all carefully printed, and the drum-and- fife marches being often full of excellent effect and spirit, while in the English manuals attention to these details is more the exception than the rule. Space will not allow us to print here any of the longer signals, either German or English, but the following Sounds may be interesting, as showing the differences between the English and German systems. The sounds are for cavalry in both cases. Walk.
��Marscli ! Marech ! (auch Verfolgung).
��In conclusion we most refer the reader who would further investigate this subject to Kastner's ' Manuel general de Musique Militaire ' (Paris 1848), where are to be found a large number of the signals and sounds in use in the different European armies in the author's time, as well as such information on the subject of military music in general a subject which has been hitherto strangely neglected in both Germany and England. Some little information will also be found in Mendel's Lexicon (arts. Militair- Musik, and Trompeter). The present writer is much indebted to the kindness of Col. Thompson, Commandant of the Military School of Music, Kneller Hall ; Lionel Cust, Esq. ; Mr. J. A. Browne bandmaster of the South Metropolitan Schools, and Messrs. H. Potter & Co., who have furnished information for this article. [W.B.S.]
SOUPIR (a sigh). The French name for a crotchet rest. A quaver rest is called un demi~ soupir, a semiquaver ditto, un quart de soupir, and so on. [G.]
SOWINSKI, ALBERT, of Polish origin, was born in 1803 at Ladyzyn in the Ukraine. He arrived in Vienna at an early age, was the pupil of Czerny, Leidesdorf, and Seyfried, and the friend of Hummel, Moscheles, and others. In 1 830 he settled in Paris as a player and litterateur, and died there March 5, 1 880. He compiled a Biographical Dictionary of Polish musicians (Les Musiciens Polonais, etc.; Paris, Le Clere, 1857), and published a translation of Schindler's ' Bee- thoven* (Paris, Garnier, 1865), of which latter we will only say that it is atrociously executed. An oratorio by him, ' St. Adalbert,' is in the Library of the late Sacred Harmonic Society. [G.]
SPACE. The stave is made up of 5 lines and 4 spaces. The spaces in the treble stave make the word FACE, which is useful as a memoria technica for beginners. [G.]
SPARK, WILLIAM, Mus. Doc., son of a lay- vicar of Exeter Cathedral, was born at Exeter Oct. 28, 1825. He became a chorister there, and in 1840 was articled for five years to Dr. S. Sebas- tian Wesley. On Wesley's leaving Exeter for the Parish Church, Leeds, his pupil went with him, and soon became deputy organist of the Parish Church, and organist of Chapeltown and St. Paul's successively. He was next chosen organist to Tiverton, Devon, and Daventry, Northampton ; and on Wesley's removal to Winchester in 1850 was appointed to St. George's Church, Leeds, where he still remains. His activity in Leeds, outside of his own parish, has been remarkable. Within a year of his appointment he founded the Leeds Madrigal and Motet Society. Then followed the People's Concerts, which resulted in the erection of the new Town Hall. The famous organ in the hall was built by Gray & Davison, from the designs of Henry Smart and Mr. Spark. It was opened April i, 1859, and after a severe competition Mr. Spark was elected the Borough organist, a post which he still holds. His organ recitals there twice a week are largely attended. Mr. Spark took his degree as Doctor