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��very curious however to observe Haward's simple alphabetical lettering, and to contrast it with the Hexachord names then passing away. There is a virginal (oblong spinet) in York Museum, made in 1651 by Thomas White, on the keys of which are monograms of Gamaut (bass G) and the three clef keys F fa ut, C sol fa ut, and G sol re ut !
Mace, in ' Musick's Monument* (London, 1676), refers to John Hay ward as a ' harpsichon' maker, and credits him with the invention of the Pedal for changing the stops. There was a spinet by one of the Haywards or Hawards left by Queen Anne to the Chapel Royal boys. It was used as a practising instrument until the chorister days of the late Sir John Goss, perhaps even later.
Stephen Keene was a well-known spinet-maker in London in the reign of Queen Anne. His spinets, showing mixed Hitchcock and Haward features, accepting Mr. Hughes's instrument as a criterion, reached the highest perfection of spinet tone possible within such limited dimen- sions. The Baudin spinet, dated 1723, which belonged to the late Dr. Kimbault, and is en- graved in his History of the Pianoforte, p. 69, is now in the possession of Mr. Taphouse of Oxford. Of later 18th-century spinets we can refer to a fine one by Mahoon, dated 1747, belonging to Mr. W. H. Cummingg, and there is another by that maker, who was a copyist of the Hitchcock s, at S. Kensington Museum. Sir F. G. Ouseley owns one by Haxby of York, 1 766 ; and there is one by Baker Harris of London, 1776, in the Music School at Edinburgh. Baker Harris's were often sold by Longman & Broderip, the predecessors in Cheapside of Clementi & Collard. It is not surprising that an attempt should have been made, while the pianoforte was yet a novelty, to construct one in this pleasing wing-shape. Crang Hancock, of Tavistock Street, Covent Gar- den, made one in 1782 which was long in the possession of Mr. Walter Broadwood. It is now at Godalming. [A.J.H.]
SPIRITOSO, i.e. 'spiritedly,' is, like CON SPI- BiTp, a designation of style rather than of pace. It is occasionally met with in Haydn, rarely in Mozart, and in not one of Beethoven's original works. In his many arrangements of national airs 'Spirituoso' occurs not unfrequently, as in op. 107, no. 10 ; op. 108, nos. 13, 22 ; but he pro- bably found it on the copies sent him. Brahms, with a touch of wonted conservatism, uses Con Spirito in the Finale of his and Symphony. [G.]
SPITTA, JULIUS AUGUST PHILIPP, a well- known musical litterateur, son of the author of the ' Psalter und Harfe'; born at Wechold, Hanover, Dec. 27, 1841 ; studied at Gottingen, and afterwards taught at Reval, Sondershausen, and Leipzig, where he took part in the founding of the Bachverein in 1874. So great was his progress during this time, that in 1875 ho was made Professor of Musical history in the Berlin university, and Perpetual Secretary to the Aca- demy of Arts there. At Easter of the same year he became teacher of musical History in
the Hochschule fur Musik ; in 1876 entered the direction, and at midsummer 1882 became a permanent director of that establishment. His principal literary work is a Life of J. S. Bach in 2 vols. (B. & H. ; vol. i. 1873, vol. ii. 1880) an accurate and perfectly exhaustive treatise of all relating to the subject, but sadly wanting a better index. 1 He has published a smaller bio- graphy of the same master, forming No. i of Breitkopf & Hartel's 'Musikalische Vortrage,' and another of Schumann, which, though issued as nos. 37, 38 of the same series, was written for this Dictionary. [See vol. iii. pp. 384-421.] His article on SPONTJNI, in this work, is the first adequate treatment of that singular individual. An article on Homilius will be found in the Allg. Deutsche ^ Biographic, and many other produc- tions of his pen in the Leipzig Allg. Musikalische Zeitung for 1875-78, 1880-82, and in the earlier numbers of Eitner's ' Monatsheft fur Musikge- schichte.' His critical edition of the organ works of Buxtehude in 2 vols. (B. & H. 1875, 76), is an admirable specimen of editing, and, in ad- dition to the music, contains much valuable information. [G.]
SPITZFLOTE, SPITZFLUTE; i.e. Pointed flute. An organ stop, so called because its pipes are slightly conical, that is, taper gradually from the mouth upwards. The diameter of the top is generally one-third of that of the pipe at its mouth. The tone is thin and reedy, but pure and effective. The Spitzflote may be of 8 ft., 4 ft., or 2 ft. pitch ; in this country stops of this kind are most commonly of 4 ft. pitch. [J.S.]
SPOFFORTH, REGINALD, glee composer, born 1768 at Southwell, Nottingham, where his uncle, Thomas Spofforth, was organist of the minster. From him and from Dr. Benjamin Cooke he probably derived all his instruction in music. About 1787 or 1788 he wrote a glee probably his first for three male voices, 'Lightly o'er the village green,' and in 1793 obtained two prizes from the ' Glee Club,' for his glees ' See ! smiling from the rosy East,' and * Where are those hours,' which brought him prominently forward. About 1 799 he published a ' Set of Six Glees,' one of which, 'Hail, smiling morn,' at once caught the public ear, and has ever since retained its popularity. Another, 'Fill high the grape's exulting stream,' gained a prize in 1810. Spofforth 's masterpieces however are not among his prize glees, and ' Come, bounteous May,' 'Mark'd you her eye,' 'Health to my dear,' and 'How calm the evening' all for male voices are among the finest specimens of his genius. Few English composers perhaps have excelled Spofforth in lively fancy, joined to pure chaste style. For several years before his death his health was bad, and he died at Kensington Sept. 8, 1827. After his death W. Hawes published a number of his MS. glees, but some of these pieces are crude and imper- fect, and probably not intended for publication.
i An English translation Is announced by Messrs. Novello * Co.