Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 3.djvu/92

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��Pate, another singer at the theatre, were removed from their places and fined 20 marks each for being engaged in a riot at the Dog Tavern, Drury Lane, but were soon after reinstated.

A Rev. John Reading, D.D., Prebendary oi Canterbury Cathedral, preached there a sermon in defence of church music, and published it in 1663. [W.H.H.]

REAL FUGUE. That species of Fugue in which the intervals of the Subject and Answer correspond exactly, withou t reference as in Tonal Fugue to the Tonic and Dominant of the scale in which they are written. Thus, in the follow- ing example, the Answer is an exact reproduction of the Subject, in the fifth above :




�� ��whereas, according to the laws of Tonal Fugue, the Tonic in the Subject should have been re- presented in the Answer by the Dominant, and vice versd ; thus




��Real Fugue is an invention of much older date than its tonal analogue ; and is, indeed, the only kind of Fugue possible in the Ecclesiastical Modes. For, in those antient tonalities, the Dominant differs widely from that of the modern cale, and exercises widely different functions ; insomuch that the Answer to a given Subject, constructed with reference to it, would, in certain Modes, be so distorted as to set all recognition at defiance. The idea of such a Dominant as that upon which we now base our harmonic combinations, is one which could never have suggested itself to the mediaeval contrapuntist. Accordingly, the composers of the I5th and i6th centuries regulated their Subjects and Answers in con- formity with the principles of the system of Hexachords. When a strict Answer was in- tended, its Solmisation was made to correspond exactly, in one Hexachord, with that of the Subject in another. Where this uniformity of Solmisation was wanting as was necessarily the case when the Answer was made in any other Interval than that of the Fourth or Fifth above or below the Subject the reply was regarded as merely an imitative one. 1 [See HEXACHORD.] But, even in imitative replies, the laws of Real Fugue required that a Fifth should always be answered by a Fifth, and a Fourth by a Fourth ; the only license permitted being the occasional substitution of a Tone for a Semitone, or a Major for a Minor third. In practice both the strict and the imitative Answer were constantly em- ployed in the same composition : e.g. in the Kyrie of Palestrina's 'Missa Brevis,' already quoted as an example under HEXACHORD, the Subject is given out by the Alto in the Hexachord of C ;

1 See the admirable exposition of the Laws of Fugue, by 3. 3. Vux, Grad us ad Parnassum.' Vienna 1725, pp. 143, et teq.


answered strictly by the Bass in that of F ; again answered, in the same Hexachord, by the Treble; and then imitated, first by the Tenor, and after- wards by the Bass, with a whole Tone, instead of a Semitone, between the second and third notes. Among the best writers of the best period of Art we find these mixed Fugues which would now be called 'Fugues of Imitation' in much more frequent use than those which con- tinued strict throughout, and forming the founda- tion of some of the finest polyphonic Masses and Motets.

When the Imitation, instead of breaking off at the end of the few bars which form the Subject, continues uninterruptedly throughout an entire movement, the composition is called a Perpetual Fugue, or, as we should now say, a Canon. A detailed classification of the different varieties of Real Fugue, perpetual, interrupted, strict, or free, in use during the 1 4th and I5th centuries, would be of very little practical service, since the student who would really master the subject must of necessity consult the works of the great masters for himself. In doing this, he will find no lack of interesting examples, and will do well to begin by making a careful analysis of Palestrina's ' Missa ad Fugam,' which differs from the work published by Alfieri and Adrien de Lafage under the title of ' Missa Canonica,' in one point only, and that a very curious one. In the ' Missa Canonica,' in the First or Dorian mode, two Voices lead off a Perpetual Real Fugue, which the two remaining Voices supplement with an- other, distinct from, but ingeniously interwoven with it; the two Subjects proceeding uninter- ruptedly together until the end of each several Movement a style of composition which is tech- nically termed ' Canon, four in two.' In the 'Missa ad Fugam,' in the Seventh Mode, the four Voices all start with the same Subject, but after a few bars separate themselves into two Choirs, each of which diverges into a Perpetual Real Fugue of its own, which continues unin- terruptedly to the end of the Movement, after the manner of the ' Missa Canonica.' a

Though less esteemed by modern Composers than Tonal Fugue, Real Fugue is still practised with success even in modern tonalities. John Sebastian Bach has left us many masterly ex- amples, both for Voices as in the Mass in B minor and for the Organ. Handel has done the same in some of his finest Choruses, as ' The earth swallowed them' in Israel in ^Egypt, and the matchless 'Amen' in the Messiah; while in no less than five of his six beautiful Fugues for the Pianoforte (op. 25), Mendelssohn has forsaken the Tonal for the Real method of construction.

The converse practice, on the part of antient Composers, is exceedingly rare, though instances of pure Tonal Fugue may be found, even in the

2 Choron's edition of the ' Missa ad Fugam' Is out of print ; but several copies of the work are preserved in the Library of the British Museum. [See EACCOLTA GENEEALE.] Albrechtsberger gives the Second Agnus Dei as an example, in his 'Grandliche Anweisung zur Composition,' vol. ii. p. 330 of Merrick's Eng. Transl. (Cocks & Co.) The 'Missa Canonica' is printed in the 'Cinq Messes de Palestrina,' edited by Adrien de Lafage (Paris, Launer; London, Schotti Co.)

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