Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 4.djvu/212

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196

��TUTTI.

��TUTTI (Ital.), all. This word is used to desig- nate those parts of a vocal or instrumental com- position which are performed by the whole of the forces at once. In the scores, and more fre- quently in the chorus parts of masses, cantatas, etc., the parts for the solo quartet (where such is employed) are often written on the same set of staves as the chorus parts, in which case the words Solo and Tutti are used to distinguish the one from the other. The same thing is done in the solo part of a pianoforte concerto, and also in the band parts of concertos generally, so that the orchestra may know where to avoid overpowering the solo instrument. It is a frequent custom in large orchestras to allow only a portion of the strings (three desks or so) to accompany solos, though if the conductor understands how to keep the players well down this is not necessary. The term Ripieno was formerly applied to those vio- lins which only play in the tuttis. For this end in some modern scores (Killer's cantata 'Die Nacht,' Liszt's 'Graner Messe,' etc.), the string parts are marked S and T or S and R where requisite.

The term Tutti hns thence been applied to those portions of a concerto in which the orches- tra not necessarily the whole orchestra plays while the solo instrument is silent. In the Mo- zartian form of the concerto the first movement has in particular two long tuttis, one at the beginning, to present the whole of the subject- matter, and the second (rather shorter) in the middle to work it out. This arrangement is still in use, though the modern tendency is to bring the solo instrument and the orchestra into closer rapport and consequently to shorten the pure solos and tuttis. Beethoven introduced (PF. Concerto in G, No. 4) the innovation of allowing the soloist to open the proceedings, but though the doing so with a flourish, as in his Eb Con- certo, has been frequently imitated since, no one has followed the extremely original and simple precedent afforded by the former work. Ex- amples of unusually long tuttis may be noticed in Beethoven's Eb and Violin Concertos, Litolffs Dutch' Concerto- symphonic, and Tschaikow- sky's immense work in Bb minor. Mendelssohn, in his G minor, set the fashion of short tuttis, which is followed by Hiller, Grieg, and others. Schumann's A minor Concerto has one of 32 short bars, another of 20, and none besides of more than 8. Brahms in D minor and Dvorak in Bb, however, return to the old fashion of a lengthy exordium.

In pure orchestral music, especially tip to Beethoven's time, we speak of the forte passages as ' the tuttis,' from the fact of their being the places where the full orchestra is used in a mass, but in modern music the tendency is to use nearly the whole orchestra everywhere, in soft or loud places, a custom which tends to render the general tone-colour dull and monotonous.

In military bands, where little difference of tone-colour is attainable, and volume of sound the prime consideration, the music is nearly all Tutti. [F.C.]

��TYLMAN SUSATO.

TYE, CHRISTOPHER, Mus. Doc., born in West- minster in the early part of the i6th century, was a chorister and afterwards a gentleman of the Chapel Royal. He graduated as Mus. Bac. at Cambridge in 1536. From 1541 to 1562 he was organist of Ely Cathedral. In 1545 he pro- ceeded Mus. Doc. at Cambridge, and in 1548 was admitted ad eundem at Oxford. He trans- lated the first 14 chapters of the Acts of the Apostles into metre, set them to music, and published them in 1553, with the curious title of ' The Actes of the Apostles, translated into Englyshe metre, and dedicated to the kynges moste excellent maiestye, by Christofer Tye, Doctor in musyke, and one of the gentylmen of hys graces most honourable Chappell, wyth notes to echo Chapter, to synge and also to play upon the Lute, very necessary e for studentes after theyr study e to fyle thyr wyttes, and alsoe for all Christians that cannot synge to reade the good and Godlye storyes of the lives of Christ hys Apostles.' Tye's verses are of the Sternhold and Hopkins order : his music for them most excellent. Hawkins printed the music for the beginning of the I4th chapter (a masterly canon), in his History, chap. xxv. the first stanza of which is a fair sample of Tye's versification :

It chanced inlconium As they oft times dyd use,

Together they into dyd cum The Sinagoge of Jues.

Some of the music of the Acts of the Apostles has been adapted by Oliphant and others to passages from the Psalms. Three anthems by Tye were printed in Barnard's Church Music, one of which was also printed in Boyce's Cathe- dral Music; another anthem was printed in Page's Harmonia Sacra, and his Evening Service in G minor in Rimbault's Cathedral Music. An anthem is in the Tudway collection (Harl. MS. 7341), and motets and anthems by him exist in MS. in the Music School and at Christ Church, Oxford. The Gloria of his mass ' Euge bone' is printed by Burney (Hist. ii. 589) and reprinted in Hullah's < Vocal Scores.' It was sung by Hullah's Upper Schools at St. Martin's Hall, and proved both melodious and interesting. Tye taught Edward VI. music. He died about 1 580. He was introduced as one of the characters of Samuel Rowley's play, 'When you see me you know me, or, The Famous Chronicle Historie of King Henry VIII. with the Birth and Virtuous Life of Edward, Prince of Wales,' 1605. In this play occurs the following curious antici- pation of a phrase well known in reference to Farinelli :

England one God, one truth, one doctor hath For Musicke's art, and that is Doctor Tye, Admired for skill in musicke's harmony.

Antony Wood attributes to him the recovery of English church music after it had been almost ruined by the dissolution of the monasteries. [See SCHOOLS OF COMPOSITION, iii. 2 7 2 6.] [ W.H.H.] TYLMAN SUSATO, printer and composer of music, was born at or near Cologne probably towards the end of the fifteenth century. His name is regularly written by himself in the

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