��enlivened with petitions, squabbles, and liti- gation: impresarios were tyrants, and singers were hard to manage. Valentin! sang again in 'Creso,' 1714, after which his name appears no more ' in the bills.'
Galliard says of him that, ' though less power- ful in voice and action than Nicolini, he was more chaste in his singing.' [J.M.]
VALENTINO, HENRI JUSTIN ARMAND JOSEPH, eminent French conductor, born at Lille, Oct. 14, 1787. His father, of Italian ori- gin, was an army-chemist, and intended him for a soldier, but his talent for music was so decided that he was allowed to follow his own bent. At 1 2 he was playing the violin at the theatre, at 14 was suddenly called upon to supply the place of the conductor, and henceforth made conducting his special business. In 1813 he married a niece of Persuis, the composer, on whose recom- mendation he became in 1818 deputy-conductor of the OpeVa under R. Kreutzer, and in 1820 was rewarded with the reversion of the title of first conductor conjointly with Habeneck. The decree did not take effect till Kreutzer's resigna- tion in 1824, when the two deputies had long been exercising the function of conductor in turn. Amongst the works produced under Valentino's direction between 1827 and 1830, maybe men- tioned 'Mo'ise,' 'La Muette de Portici,' 'Guil- laume Tell,' and ' Le Dieu et la Bayadere.' He also held from April 10, 1824, the reversion after Plantade of the post of Maltre de chapelle honoraire to the King, but this he lost by the Revolution of 1830, which also brought about changes at the Op6ra. Dr. VeVon, the new director, inaugurated his reign by cutting down salaries, and Valentino, determined not to sacri- fice the musicians who served under him to his own interests, resigned. He soon after succeeded Cremont as chief conductor of the Opera Comique, an enviable post which he occupied from April 1831 to April 1836. Here he produced ' Zampa,' 'Le Pre" aux Clercs,' 'Le Prison d'Edimbourg,' Le Chalet,' 'Kobin des Bois ' ('Der Freischutz'), 'Le Cheval de Bronze,' 'Action,' and 'L'Eclair.' On the direction of all these popular works he bestowed a care, zeal, and attention to nuances beyond all praise.
On resigning the Ope*ra Comique, Valentino settled at Chantilly, but was soon offered the direction of the popular Concerts of classical music. Fascinated by the idea of rivalling the Concerts of the Conservatoire, and spreading the taste for high-class instrumental music, he courageously put himself at the head of the enter- prise. The spot selected was the hall at 251 Rue St. Honore*, where Musard had given masked balls and concerts of dance-music, and which was now destined to hear the classical masterpieces inter- preted by a first-rate orchestra of 85 players and all for 2 francs! But the public was not ripe for classical music, and preferred the I franc nights and dance-music, under a less eminent conductor. The ' Concerts Valentino,' started in Oct. 1837, came to an end in April 1841, but the name of their founder remained attached to
the hall where so many schemes of amusement have failed since then.
Valentino then retired to Versailles, and lived in obscurity for 24 years. He was indeed asked in 1846 to return to the Opera, but declined. He had married again, and the last few years of his life were passed in the midst of his family and a few intimate friends. He died at Versailles Jan. 28, 1865, in his 78th year. [G.C.]
VALERIANO, CAVALIERB VALEBIANO PEL- LEGRINI, commonly called ; a very distinguished musico, attached to the Court of the Elector Palatine, about 1712. In that year he visited London, replacing Nicolini, who left in June. Valeriano, who had a counter-tenor voice of great beauty, 'created' the principal parts in ' Pastor Fido,' produced Nov. ai, and in 'Teseo,' first performed Jan. 10, 1713. He sang also the chief r6le in Ernelinda,' and drew the highest salary of the season (about 650). His engage- ment terminated, Valeriano left England, and did not return here again. [J. M.}
VALLACE, GUGLIELMO. A new libretto to Rossini's ' Guillaume Tell,' written for the production of that opera in Milan, at the Scala Theatre, Dec. 26, 1836. [G.]
VALLERIA, ALWINA. Miss Alwina Valle- ria Lohmann was born Oct. 12, 1848, at Balti- more, U.S.A, studied at the Royal Academy of Music, London, the piano, with Mr. W. H. Holmes, and singing, as second study, with Mr. Wall worth, and in 1869 gained the West- moreland Scholarship ; received further instruc- tion in singing from Arditi, and on June 2, 1871, made her first appearance in public, after which she was promptly engaged for Italian opera at St. Petersburg, where she made her first appear- ance on the stage Oct. 23 of the same year, as Linda di Chamouni. Her next engagements were in Germany and at La Scala, Milan. She was afterwards engaged at Her Majesty's Opera, Drury Lane, for two seasons, and made her first appearance May 3, 1873, as Marta. From 1877-78 she was engaged in Italian opera at the same house, and in 1879-82 at Covent Garden, undertaking with readiness and capacity a large number of parts, whether principal or subordinate viz. Inez ('L'Afri- caine'), Leonora ('Trovatore'), Adalgisa, Donna Elvira, Susanna, Blonde (' II Seraglio'), andMi- chaela on the production in England of ' Carmen ' (June 22, 1878). For the seasons 1882 and 1883 she sang in English opera under Carl Rosa in the 'Flying Dutchman' and 'Tannhauser '; and on April 9, 1883, was mucu praised for her spirited performance of Colomba, on the production of Mackenzie's opera. She sang in oratorio for the first time on Dec. 26, 1882, at Manches- ter, in the 'Messiah,' and has since been very successful both in the Handel and Leeds Festi- vals of 1883. Mme. Valleria has also sung suc- cessfully in opera and concerts in America and elsewhere. Her voice extends from Bb below the line to D in alt, is of considerable flexibility, fair power and volume, and pleasant quality. She