��considerable effect. The staccato with the wheel is surprisingly brilliant ; the defect of the instru- ment for the listener is its monotony of force and intonation, and for the player the extreme fatigue which the rotary motion induces in the muscles of the right arm. Even in England a clever performer may sometimes (though rarely) be heard about the streets. [E.J.P.]
VIERLING, GEORG. One of those solid, cultivated musicians, who are characteristic of Germany. He was born Sept. 15, 1820, at Frankenthal in the Bavarian Palatinate, where his father was schoolmaster and organist. His education was thoroughly well grounded with a view to a scientific career, and it was not till 1 835, at the Gymnasium at Frankfort, that his musical tendencies asserted themselves. Without neg- lecting his general studies he worked hard at the piano, and afterwards at the organ under J. C. H. Rinck of Darmstadt for two years. 1 843 to 1846 were passed in systematic study under A. B. Marx at Berlin, and in 1847 he became organist of the Oberkirch at Frankfurt-on-the- Oder, conducted the Singakademie there, and was musically active in other ways. After passing a short time at Mayence he took up his permanent residence in Berlin, and founded the Bach-Verein, which did much to advance the study of the great master. For some time past Vierling has withdrawn from active life, and his Bach Society is now conducted by Bargiel.
His works are all in the classical style, and embrace every department : a Symphony, op. 33; Overtures to The Tempest,' 'Maria Stuart,' Im Friihling,' Hermannschlacht,' and 'Die Hexe' ; a PF. trio. op. 51 ; 'Hero and Leander' and 'The Rape of the Sabines,' for Chorus and Orchestra; in addition to Solo and Part-songs, Pianoforte pieces, etc. His last work is a Roman Pilgrims-song of the 7th century, 'O Roma Nobilis,' for 6-part chorus a capella (op. 63). [G.]
VIEUXTEMPS, HENRI, a celebrated violin- player of our own day, born at Verviers, Bel- gium, Feb. 17, i Sao. 1 His father was connected with music, and thus the child grew up in a favourable atmosphere. Through the kindness of a Herr Genin he had instruction from Lecloux, a competent local musician, and by the time he was six played Rode's 5th Concerto in public in the orchestra. In the winter of 1827 he and his father made a tour with Lecloux, in the course of which the boy was heard by De Beriot, who at once adopted him as his pupil, devoted him- self to his thorough musical education, and in 1828 took him to Paris and produced him in public. On De Beriot's departure to Italy in 1831, the boy returned to Brussels, where he re- mained for some time, studying and practising hard, but without any guidance but his own. In 1833 his father took him on a lengthened tour through Germany the first of an enormous series in the course of which he met Guhr,
i The materials for this sketch are supplied by Vieuxtemps' auto- biography published in the Guide Musical, and translated in the Mvtical World, June 25. 1881. and following uos.. by Philharmonic Programmes, the Allg. Uurikaliieht Zeitvng, and other sources.
Spohr, Molique, and other musicians, and heard much music, amongst the rest ' Fidelio.' The journey extended as far as Munich and Vienna, where he excited surprise, not only for his fulness of tone, purity of intonation, and ele- gance of style, but also for the ready way in which he played off a MS. piece of Mayseder's at sight (A. M. Z. 1834, p. 160). He remained in Vienna during the winter, and while there took lessons in counterpoint from Sechter. There too he made the acquaintance of May- seder, Czerny, and others. He also played Bee- thoven's Violin Concerto (at that time a novelty) at one of the Concerts Spirituels. The party then returned northwards by Prague, Dresden, Leipsio (where Schumann welcomed him in a genial article in his 'Neue Zeitschrift '), Ber- lin, and Hamburg. In the spring of 1834 he was in London at the same time with De Beriot, and played for the first time at the Philhar- monic on June 2. a Here too he met Paganini. The winter of 1835 was spent in Paris, where he made a long stay, studying composition under Reicha. After this he began to write. In 1837 he and his father made a second visit to Vienna, and in 1838 they took a journey to Russia, by Warsaw, travelling for part of the way with Henselt. The success was so great as to induce another visit in the following year, when he made the journey by Riga, this time with Servais. On the road he made the acquaintance of Richard Wagner. But a little later, at Narva, he was taken with a serious illness which delayed his arrival for some months, and lost him the winter season of 1838. The summer was spent in the country, mostly in composition Concerto in E, Fantaisie Caprice, etc. both which he produced in the following winter amid the most prodigious enthusiasm ; which was repeated in his native country when he returned, especially at the Rubens FStes in Antwerp (Aug. 1840), where he was decorated with the Order of Leopold, and in Paris, where he played the Concerto at the concert of the Conservatoire, Jan. 12, 1841. He then made a second visit to London, and performed at the Philharmonic Concert of April 19, and at two others of the same series a rare proof of the strong impression he made. The next few years were taken up in another enormous Continental tour, and in a voyage to America in 1844. A large number of compo- sitions (ops. 6 to 19) were published after re- gaining Brussels ; but the strain of the incessant occupation of the tour necessitated a long Kur at Stuttgart. During this he composed his A major Concerto (op. 25),. and played it at Brus- sels in Jan. 1845. In the following autumn he married Miss Josephine Eder, an eminent pianist of Vienna. Shortly after this he accepted an in- vitation to settle in St. Petersburg as Solo Violin to the Emperor, and Professor in the Conser- vatorium, and in Sept. 1846 quitted Western Europe for Russia. In 1852, however, he threw up this strange contract and returned to his old arena and his incessant wanderings. 1853 saw J Moscheles' 'Life.' 1. 304 ; and Philh. Programmes.