the Bow and Bromley Institute, the Temple Church (Schulze), the Free Trade Hall, Manches- ter (Kirtland & Jardine), and York Minster.
(2) The free-reed was derived from a Chinese organ, and was applied about 1780 to organ reed-stops by a Copenhagen organ-builder named Kirsnick, who had settled at S. Petersburg. Vogler was so impressed with Kirsnick's experi- ment that he induced Rackwitz, Kirsnick's as- sistant, to follow him to Stockholm, and make several stops on this principle. When Vogler returned to Germany in 1799 ne carried the invention with him wherever he went, and it was through his advocacy that people first realised its capabilities. To this initiative must be attributed not only the free-reed stops in organs, but also the Harmonium and its varieties.
(3) Vogler arranged the pipes of an organ in semitonal order the large pipes at the left end of the soundboard, and the small pipes at the right end. Most organ-builders adhere to the old system ; but Vogler's arrangement has found adherents, amongst whom maybe noted the cele- brated Schulze of Paulinzelle (who built his organ for the Exhibition of 1851 on this principle), Walcker of Ludwigsburg, and Messrs. Kirtland & Jardine and Forster & Brindley in England.
(4) On the fourth point Vogler has achieved an undoubted success. The Mixtures still found in organs, are not the overwhelming ones that he assailed, and further modifications in this respect are possibly still to come. Outside the particular questions raised by Vogler, his influence on organ- building was considerable, and much of the im- provement therein in the last seventy years may be ascribed to his attacks.
As a theorist Vogler developed the tenets of Valotti. His system of harmony was founded on acoustics, and its fundamental principle was that not only the triad (common chord), but also the discords of the seventh, ninth, and eleventh could be introduced on any degree of the scale without involving modulation. He went even beyond this, and allowed chromatically altered forms of these chords and inversions of them. But his system never took much root. According to Knecht, its most ardent advocate, it was full of practical advantages, placed in a clear light the formation of the scales, simplified figuring and thorough-bass, and got rid of all sorts of meaningless and confusing terms, * dominants that do not dominate, Vorschlags, Nachschlags, etc.* Two other writers have founded their svs- tems on that of Vogler, F. J. C. Schneider and Jelensperger ; but it has passed into oblivion.
It is as a teacher that Vogler has most claims on posterity, for no musician has ever had so many remarkable pupils. As a teacher of singing he was in great request, and the cele- brated Madame Lange (Aloysia Weber) owed almost everything that was admirable in her singing to his instruction. 1 It was, however, to the teaching of composition that he directed his greatest efforts ; and from his Schools at Mann- heim, Stockholm, and Darmstadt came forth
1 Schubart, Aesthetik, p. 130.
��Winter, 2 Ritter, Kraus, Danzi, Kornacher, B. A. Weber, Baron von Poisel, Gansbacher, C. M. von Weber, and Meyerbeer. Sterkel also received lessons from Vogler, and Knecht the organist and Gottfried Weber were very directly influenced by him. His pupils conceived the deepest regard for him. * Mere association with him,' says Gans- bacher, ' was a kind of school.' Vogler was not only a most judicious and sagacious teacher, 3 he was also the kindest and most generous of friends, and he reaped the reward of his kindness by finding that his old pupils after passing into the world were ever ready to return to his side.* Few scenes of artistic life are more charming than the picture of the details of Vogler's last Tonschule at Darmstadt. After the Abbe* had said Mass, at which one of his scholars played the organ, all met for a lesson in coun- terpoint. Then subjects for composition were given out, and finally each pupil brought up his piece to receive the criticism of his master and fellow-pupils. 5 Every day a work of some great composer was analysed. Sometimes the Abbe" would propound a theme for improvisation. Not unfrequently he would play himself, as he never played except when alone with his three dear boys,' in the empty church. From the mind of one of these 'boys,' the impression of these performances was never effaced, for Weber always described them as a thing not to be forgotten. Anon we get glimpses of VVeber at work on 'Abu Hassan ' or on ' Papa's ' biography, while the ' old gentleman ' looks on, and advises or composes, consuming * enormous quantities of snuff.' By way of varying the regular routine the master would take his scholars with him to organ recitals in neighbouring towns. The pupils, in their turn, would diversify the common round by writing an ode to celebrate * Papa's' birthday. 6 A happier household can hardly be imagined. When the master died, his pupils felt as if they had lost a father. ' Reiner . . announced to me yesterday,' wrote Weber to Gansbacher (.May 13, 1814), ' that on the 6th our beloved master Vogler was sud- denly snatched from us by death . . . He will ever live in our hearts.'
A list of Vogler's works in various departments is appended.
OPERATIC WORKS, arranged as far as possible in chronological order, with the places
where they were first performed. Ino, cantata by Ramler. Darmstadt. 1779. Lampedo (or Lampi edo). a melodrama. Darmstadt, about 1779. Hamlet, overture and entractesfor the play of. At Mannheim, 1779. Der Kaufmann von Smirna. operetta. At Mannheim. 1771. Albeit III von Baiern. opera in 5 acts. At Munich, 17K). LaKermesse, opera. At the Come"die Italienne in 1'aris, NOT. 15, 1783.
��2 Winter afterwards objected to be called a pupil of Vogler, appa- rently without good reason. Compositions of his appear in the ' Mauu- helmer Tonschule.'
As for instance when he made C. M. v. Weber go back to the itudy of the great old masters in 1803.
E. g. Kraus in 1779. B. A. Weber in 1790, C. M. von Weber in 1809. Gfinsbacher in 1810.
Gfinsbacher tells us that Moses Mendelssohn's Translation of the Psalms was a favourite text-book for the daily exercise at Darmstadt. 'At first/ lie adds, ' we took the exercises In the after- noon, but the Abbe, who almost daily dined with the Grand Duke, used to p.o to. sleep, pencil in hand We therefore agreed to take our exercises to him henceforward in the morning.'
6 In 1MO. Weber wrote the words, Giinsbacher two solos, Meyerbeer a terzet and chorus.