Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 4.djvu/459

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WELSH MUSIC.

of the key are omitted, a fact which accounts for the peculiar effect produced upon a cultivated ear by the Scotch bagpipe of the present day, where the music passes from minor to relative major, and back, without the least regard for the tonic and dominant drones of the original key, which con- tinue to sound. The story, if true, would show that the Welsh were already in possession of a Scale or Key, which, by their own showing, consisted of notes that formed perfect concords ; whereas the other, which they objected to, was of a mixed nature, neither major nor minor, but a mixture of the two which is not altogether an inapt way of describing the pentatonic or Scotch Scale.

The 'Caniad Pibau Morvydd' (The Song of Morvydd's Pipes), above alluded to, is also in- cluded in the ancient manuscript.

The 'twenty-four measures ' consisted of a given number of repetitions of the chords of the tonic and dominant, according to the length of each measure, and are represented by the following marks, 1 standing for the tonic chord, and for the dominant :

Long Measure (Mac y Mwn Hir.)

k x fcxfcx k x kxk imooooioiomiooooioii or 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 mi-

or in modern notation .^--1-M- 1 . I I I 1.4

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��Short Measure (Mac y Mwn Byr.)

ft x k 11001111 or 11 11 1111-

��The positions of the chords are arranged so as to admit of their being played on the open strings of the Crwth.

These measures do not appear in Welsh music after the date to which the manuscript refers, a circumstance which may be considered most fortunate ; for, though well adapted to their purpose at that early period, viz. for the guid- ance of performers on the Harp and Crwth the latter being used as an accompaniment to the Harp had such rules remained in force, they would have rendered the national music of Wales intensely monotonous and uninteresting, and thoroughly destroyed all freedom of imagi- nation in musical composition; whereas, it is remarkable for its beauty of melody, richness of harmony and variety of construction.

Printed Collections of Welsh Melodies.

Ancient British Music. John Parry of Ehuabon. Vol. i. 1742.

Welsh, English, and Scotch Airs. John Parry of Khuabon. Vol. ii. No date.

British Harmony, Ancient Welsh Airs. John Parry ofBhuabon. Vol. iii. 1781.

��WELSH TRIPLE HARP. 443

Relicks of the Welsh Bards. Edward Jones (Eardd y Brenin). Vol. i. 1794.

Bardic Museum. Edward Jones (Bardd y Brenin). Vol. ii. 180S2.

Cambro-British Melodies. Edward Jones (Bardd y Brenin). Vol. iii. No date.

Wel sh Melodies. John Parry (Bardd Alaw). 1809.

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Original Welsh Airs, arranged by Haydn and Bee- thoven. George Thompson, Edinburgh. Vol. i, 1SUJ ; vol. ii, 1811 : vol. iii, 1814.

ISIT^art if e i8?0 ie8 ' ^^ Dovaston Dublin. Parti,

Welsh Melodies. J. Thompson. 1817 1829 ambrian Harmony ' Kicha ^ Boberta of Caernarvon.

The Ancient Airs of Gwent and Morganwg. Miss Jane Williams of Aberpergwm. 1844. 1845 Cambrian Min strel. John Thomas of Merthyr.

Welsh National Airs. John Owen (Owain Alaw) of

series '

��Welsh Melodies. John Thomas (Pencerdd Gwalia) of London. Vols. i and ii, 1862 ; vol. iii, 1870 ; vol. iv, 1874.

MS. Collections.

The Welsh manuscript mentioned in the fore- going article as in the British Museum is in Add. MS. 14,905. The writing shows it to be of the date of Charles I. It came to the Museum from the 'Welsh School.' The book contains the name of Lewis Morris 1742, and Richard Morris, Esq., 1771, and the following MSS.

Fol. 3. Cerdd Dannau. Extract from an old Manu- script of Sir Watkin Williams Wynn.

3a. Copy of an order by Elizabeth as to the bestowal of a Silver Harp on the best harper. 1567.

4a. Drawing of the harp (16 strings). Title ' Musica neu Beroriaeth. The following Manuscript is the Musick of the Britains, as settled by a Congress, or Meeting of Masters of Music, by order of Gryifudd ap Cynan, Prince of Wales, about A.D. 1040; with some ot the most antient pieces of the Britains, supposed to have been handed down to us from the British Druids ; in Two Parts (i. e. Bass and Treble) for the Crwth. This Manuscript was wrote by Robert ap Huw of Bodwigen. in Anglesey, in Charles ye Ists time. Some Parts of it copied then, out of Wrn. Penllyn's Book."

The MS. up to f. 10 (including the above) is in a later hand, apparently written about 1783, which date occurs in it. At f. 10 the old music begins, the writing is about the early part of the 17th cent. The music is in tablature the words are Welsh. At fol. 58 is (appar- ently) a draft of a letter in English, dated 1648. At fol. 59 the later hand begins again, with extracts from Welsh works, and MSS. relating to Welsh Music. The whole MS. contains 64 ff.

The portion containing the Ancient Music is printed in vol. iii. of the ' Myvyrian Archaeology of Wales' (1807). See Transactions Cymmro- dorion Soc. i. 361.

Other collections of Welsh music in the Mu- seum are, Ad. MS. 14,939, 'Collections by R. Morris, 1779.' Do. 15,021, Account of the Old Welsh Notation. Do. 15,036, Tracts on ancient Welsh Music transcribed by Hugh Maurice for O. Jones, from a MS. by John Jones. [J.T.]

WELSH TRIPLE HARP (Telyn dair-rhes}. This instrument has three rows of strings ; the two outside rows being tuned in unison, accord- ing to the diatonic scale, and the inner row tuned so as to supply the flats and sharps required to complete the chromatic scale.

The Welsh Triple Harp is the only instrument of its kind that has ever been known with the strings on the right side, of the comb ; thereby

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