Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 4.djvu/607

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CHORALE.
591
CLARK.

unverändert … herausgegeben von Ludwig Erk,' 1850; 'Choralbuch, enthaltend eine Auswahl von 272 der schönsten … Kirchengesänge in vierstimmige Bearbeitung. Nebst einem Anhang, bestehend aus 69 von J. S. Bach theils ganz neu componirten, theils im Generalbass verbesserten Melodien. Herausgegeben von J. G. Lehmann,' third edition, 1871; '371 vierstimmige Choralgesange von J. S. Bach.' [Edited by C. F. Becker.] To what extent the melodies of these, which editors persist in attributing to Bach, are really his, is a very difficult question, on which the present writer hesitates as much to pronounce an opinion as on the similar question of Luther's authorship of the music of certain hymns. Another carefully prepared collection which bears the respectable names of Baron von Tucher, Immanuel Faisst, and Job. Zahn, is entitled 'Die Melodien des deutschen evangelischen Kirchen-Gesangbuchs in vierstimmigen Satze für Orgel und Chorgesang,' Stuttgart, 1854. A good popular book also is 'Hauschoralbuch: alte und neue Choralgesänge mit vierstimmigen Harmonien,' of which the 7th edition was published at Gütersloh, 1871.

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CHORAL SYMPHONY. Line 9 from end of article, for Theater an der Wien, read Kärnthnerthor Theatre. (Corrected in late editions.)

CHORTON. The 'Chorus' or ecclesiastical pitch to which organs were usually tuned in the 17th and 18th centuries. It was considerably higher than the chamber pitch, used for secular music. This chamber pitch (Kammerton) was of two kinds, the high and the low, but both were below the chorus pitch. [See Pitch, vol. ii. p. 757 b. Also Spitta, J. S. Bach, Engl. ed. ii. 286, 324, 676, etc.]

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CHORUS. Add that the word was very commonly used, in the 17th and 18th centuries, to denote the concerted conclusion of duets, trios, etc., and was in fact the exact equivalent of our 'ensemble.' The meaning of the word has frequently been misunderstood, as for in many modern editions of Purcell's well-known duet 'Hark, my Daridcar!' where the last ensemble section, beginning 'So ready and quick is a spirit of air' has been omitted, no doubt under the impression that the word 'Chorus' meant that these bars were to be sung by many voices. Conclusive proof that the word was used commonly in this sense is afforded in many of Handel's Italian operas, in the scores of which the names of the quartet of soloists are placed at the beginning of their respective lines in ensemble numbers, though the movement is entitled 'Coro.'

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CHOUQUET, Gustave. Add that from 1840 to 1856 he was teaching in New York, and that he died Jan. 30, 1886.

CHRISTUS. P. 355 a, last line but one, for 27 read 26.

CHRYSANDER, Friedrich. For his chief work as editor of Handel's works see Händel-Gesellschaft in this Appendix. Of the 'Denkmäler der Tonkunst' edited by him, vol. 1 of Corelli and vol. 2 of Couperin are published and the second and final volumes of each nearly ready; and the Te Deum of Urio is published. The 'Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitung' was edited by him from 1869 to 1871 and again from 1875 to 1883, when it became extinct. The 'Jahrbücher für musikalische Wissenschaft' ceased to appear after vol. 2. His life of Handel has been laid by on account of the constant and absorbing labour on the edition of Handel's works; but it is believed that there is still hope of its resumption and completion.

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CHWATAL, Fr. Xav. See vol. ii. p. 729 b. Add that he died June 24, 1879.

CIMAROSA. Add dates to the following operas:—L'ltaliana in Londra, 1779; Il Convito di pietra, 1782; Il Pittore Parigino, 1782; Il Sacrifizio d'Abramo, 1786; Le Astuzie femminile, 1793; L'Impresario in angustie, 1786; Il Matrimonio per raggiro, 1779; Gli Orazii e Curiazii, 1796; Artaserse, 1781; Semiramide, 1799.

CIMBALOM. See Dulcimer, vol. i. p. 468 b.

CINELLI. The ordinary Italian name for cymbals. The name Piatti is almost universally used in orchestral scores, though it is, strictly speaking, only applicable to the small cymbals used in Janitscharenmusik.

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CINQ MARS. An 'opéra dialogué' in four acts; words by Poirson and Gallet, music by Gounod. Produced at the Opéra Comique, April 5, 1877.

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CIVIL SERVICE MUSICAL SOCIETY. Add that the society ceased to exist in 1880, owing to financial difficulties consequent upon the resignation of several of the older members. A concert was given on May 11 of that year in Steinway Hall.

CLAGGET, Charles. Add that he is said to have died in 1820, and that the tuning-fork referred to in the last sentence of the article is one of the sounding bars of his 'Aiuton.'

CLARIBEL. See Barnard, Charlotte Alington, in Appendix, vol. iv. p. 531 a.

CLARINET. P. 361 a, l. 15 from bottom, add a reference to Abbreviations, i. 4 a, and to Chalumeau, for examples of the use of the term. P. 362 b, last paragraph, add that the first instance of the use of the clarinet as an orchestral instrument is said to be in J. C. Bach's 'Orione' (1763).

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CLARK, JEREMIAH. Add that he is said to have been born in 1669, but that the date is probably much earlier. L. 13 from end of article, for the same year read 1699. L. 9 from end, add date for 'The World in the Moon,' 1697. To the list of plays for which he furnished music, the following are to be added:—'The Campaigners,' 1698; 'The Bath,' 1701; 'All for the better,' 1702, and 'the Committee,' 1706. Since the publication of the article in the Dictionary of National Biography, from which