Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 4.djvu/631

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Ditson & Co. In 1875 another son, J. Edward, became a member of the firm, and the head of the Philadelphia branch, J. Edward Ditson & Co. In 1860 a branch was established in Boston for the importation and sale of band and orchestral instruments and other musical merchandise, under the name of John C. Haynes & Co. A further branch has existed in Chicago since 1864, styled Lyon & Healy, who transact a general business in music and musical merchandise with the growing country that lies to the westward. The catalogue of sheet music published by the house and its four branches embraces over 51,000 titles. Some 2000 other titles—instruction books, operas, oratorios, masses, collections of psalmody and of secular choral music, in fact every variety of music and text book known to the trade are also included in the list of publications bearing the imprint of the firm. [App. p.819 "date of death of Oliver Ditson, Dec. 21, 1888"]

[ F. H. J. ]

DOCTOR OF MUSIC. Line 20 of article, and following, correct date of Bull's degree to 1592, that of Callcott to 1800, and that of Bishop to 1853. Line 10 from bottom, correct date of Nares' degree to 1756. Refer to Oxford, vol. ii. 624 b, for a further list of names, and see Degrees in Appendix.

DODECACHORDON (original Greek title, ΔΩΔΕΚΑΧΟΡΔΟΝ, from δωδέκα twelve, and χορδη, a string). A work, published at Basle, in September, 1547, by the famous mediæval theorist, now best known by his assumed name, Glareanus, though his true patronymic was Heinrich Loris, latinized Henricus Loritus. [See vol. i. p. 598.]

The Dodecachordon owes its existence to a dispute, which, at the time of its publication, involved considerations of great importance to Composers of the Polyphonic School; and the clearness and logical consistency of the line of argument it brings to bear upon the subject render it the most valuable treatise on the Ecclesiastical Modes that has ever been given to the world.

In the time of S. Ambrose, four Modes only were formally acknowledged. S. Gregory increased the number to eight. Later students, finding that fourteen were possible, advocated the use of the entire number. In the opening years of the 9th century, the controversy grew so hot, that the question was referred to the Emperor Charlemagne, who was well known to be one of the most learned Musicians of his age. Charlemagne, after long deliberation, decided that twelve Modes were sufficient for general use: and his dictum was founded on an indisputable theoretical truth; for, though fourteen Modes are possible, two are rendered practically useless, by reason of their dissonant intervals.

The decision of Charlemagne was universally accepted, in practice; but, in process of time, an element of confusion was introduced into the theory of the Modes, by certain superficial students—prototypes of the party which now tells us that 'Plain Song ought always to be sung in unison'—who, unable to penetrate beyond the melodic construction of the scale, imagined that certain Modes were essentially identical, because they corresponded in compass, and in the position of their semitones. It is quite true that every Authentic Mode corresponds, in compass, and in the position of its semitones, with a certain Mode taken from the Plagal Series; just as, in the modern system, every Major Scale corresponds, in signature, with a certain Minor Scale. But, the intervals in the two Modes are referable to, and entirely dependent upon, a different Final; just as, in the Relative Major and Minor Scales, they are referable to a different Tonic. For instance, the Authentic Mixolydian Mode corresponds, exactly, in its compass, and the position of its semitones, with the Plagal Hypoionian Mode. The range of both lies between G and g; and the semitones, in both, fall between the third and fourth, and the sixth and seventh degrees. But, the Final of the Mixolydian Mode is G, and that of the Hypoionian, C; and, though Palestrina's Missa Papæ Marcelli, written in the Hypoionian Mode, ends every one of its greater sections with a full close on the Chord of C, and bases every one of its most important Cadences on that Chord, there are critics at the present day who gravely tell us that it is in the Mixolydian Mode, simply because the range of its two Tenors lies between G and g. Glareanus devotes pages 73–74 of the Dodecachordon to an unanswerable demonstration of the fallacy of this reasoning; and all the great theorists of the 16th century are in agreement with him, in so far as the main facts of the argument are concerned, though they differ in the numerical arrangement of their 'Tables.' To prevent confusion on this point, it is necessary to consider the system upon which these 'Tables' are constructed.

The most comprehensive and reasonable system of classification is that which presents the complete series of fourteen possible Modes, in their natural order, inserting the impure Locrian and Hypolocrian forms, in their normal position, though rejecting them in practice. The complete arrangement is shown in the following scheme.

I. Dorian.
II. Hypodorian.
III. Phyrgian.
IV. Hypophrygian.
V. Lydian (or Hyperphrygian).
VI. Hypolydian.
VII. Mixolydian (or Hyperlydian.)
VIII. Hypomixolydian.
IX. Æolian.
X. Hypoæolian.
XI. Locrian (or Hyperæolian).
XII. Hypolocrian (or Hyperphrygian).
XIII. Ionian (or Iastian).
XIV. Hypoionian (or Hypoiastian).

The system most widely opposed to this recognises the existence of eight Modes only—Nos. I–VIII in the foregoing series; and represents the Æolian, Hypoæolian, Ionian, and Hypoionian forms, as replicates of Modes II, III, VI, and VII—or, still less reasonably, Modes I, II, V, and VI with the substitution of different Finals.

In all essential points, Glareanus follows the first-named system, though he describes the Ionian, and Hypoionian forms, as Modes XI and