GRÄDENER, Carl G. P., born Jan. 14, 1812, at Rostock, received his first musical employment as a violoncellist at Helsingfors. After three years he went to Kiel and was appointed Musikdirector to the University there, a post which he retained for ten years. In 1851 he founded an academy for vocal music at Hamburg, and remained there until in 1862 he was appointed to teach singing and theory in the Vienna Conservatorium. After three years he returned to Hamburg, where the rest of his life was spent. In 1867 he joined F. W. Grund in forming the Hamburger Tonkünstlerverein, the presidentship of which he held for some years. As a composer of chamber music, the chief interest of which centres in the ingenuity and freshness of its harmonies and the excellence of its form, he is justly esteemed. His works include two pianoforte quintets, two trios, three string quartets, an octet, two symphonies, besides a concerto, a sonata, and many pieces for the piano. He died at Hamburg, June 11, 1883. His son Hermann, born May 8, 1844, at Kiel, entered the Vienna Conservatorium in 1862; in 1864 was appointed organist at Gumpendorf, and became a member of the court orchestra in Vienna. In 1874 he was appointed teacher of harmony, etc., in the Conservatorium, and in 1882 received the title of Professor. In 1886 he became director of the academical society for orchestral music, and of the academical Gesangverein. His compositions, though not numerous, show very strong individuality. As in the case of his father, he is at his best in chamber music; his piano quintet has been played in London with success. His 'Lustspielouvertüre' and an octet for strings may also be mentioned.
[ M. ]
GRAHAM, George Farquhar. Line 3 of article for 1790 read Dec. 29, 1789.
GRAND OPERA. P. 617a, l. 19 from bottom, for dramatic essay read essay in this form of opera. P. 617b, l. 5, for 'La Favorite' read 'Don Carlos.'
GRAND PIANO. For the third paragraph of the article read as follows:—The Silbermann pianos bought by Frederick the Great, still preserved at Potsdam (at the Town Palace, the New Palace, and Sans Souci) are three in number, and are of the grand form. They are copies of the grand pianos by Cristofori dated 1720 and 1726, which are preserved at Florence. This important fact was determined by the writer on a special visit to Berlin in 1881. P. 618a, l. 15. The actions here referred to are different. [See Pianoforte.] Line 25, for rather to Silbermann's ideal read to an early German action (not Schroeter's model) improved upon by Stein. For l. 4 from end of article, read Allen's tubes and plates, patented in 1820.
[ A. J. H. ]
GRAND PRIX DE ROME. In the list of composers, under the year 1859, for Eugéne read Ernest.
The following list completes the number of composers who have gained the prize since the publication of the article in vol. i. p. 618, until the present time:—
1878. Broutin and Rousseau. 'La Fille de Jephté.'
1879. Hue. 'Médés.'
1880. Hillemacher (Lucien). 'Fingal.'
1881. No first prize.
1882. Marty and Pierné. 'Edith.'
1883. Vidal. 'Le Gladiateur.'
1884. Debussy. 'L'Enfant prodigue.'
1885. Leroux. 'Endymion.'
1886. Savard. 'La Vision de Saül.
1887. Charpentier. 'Didon.'
After the year 1803 the competition for the Grand Prix de Rome was decided by the Institut. In 1864 it was modified by a decree of Napoleon III: from 1864 to 1871 the works were judged by a special jury composed of nine members drawn by lot from a list chosen by the general superintendent of theatres. Since 1872 the final judgment has been restored to the united sections of the Académie des Beaux Arts; and the method of procedure is as follows:—The six composers forming the musical section of the Institut (now represented by MM. Thomas, Gounod, Reyer, Massenet, Saint-Saëns, and Delibes), assisted by three composers not belonging to the above-mentioned body, give a previous verdict which the entire Académie has to ratify or veto. The competition takes place in June, and the performance of the prize cantata in October, at the annual public séance of the Académie des Beaux Arts.
[ A. J. ]
GRAS, Mme. J. A. Dorus. Correct date of birth from 1807 to Sept. 7, 1804. P. 619a, l. 5 from bottom, after retirement add the words from the Grand Opera. (See Damoreau, vol. i. 428b.)
GRASSINI, Josephina. Line 5 from end of article, for in January read Jan. 3.
GRAUN, K. H. Add that the 'Tod Jesu' was performed at an orchestral concert given by the Royal Academy of Music on April 1, 1887, under the direction of Mr. Barnby.
GRAZIANI. Add Christian name, Francesco, and that he was born at Fermo, April 26, 1829. His brother, Lodovico, born at Fermo, August 1823, was a tenor singer of some celebrity. He died in May 1885.
GREATHEED, Rev. Samuel Stephenson, was born in Somersetshire on Feb. 22, 1813. He received his first instruction in harmony from Mr. W. Chappell Ball, organist of St. Mary's, Taunton. In 1831 he entered at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. as fourth wrangler in 1835, and was elected to a Fellowship in 1837. In May 1838 he was ordained by Bishop Allen (of Ely), and in the same year vacated his Fellowship by marriage. In 1838 and 1839 Mr. Greatheed spent about six months in Berlin, where he studied music under G. W. Schwarz. In 1840 he was appointed to the Curacy of West Drayton, Middlesex, and in 1862 to the Rectory of Corringham, Essex. Mr. Greatheed began to study counterpoint systematically in 1844. His published works are as follows:—'Te Deum,' composed upon the original melody; 'Benedictus,' 'Magnificat,' and 'Nunc Dimittis,' upon the 8th tone; ten anthems; 'Enoch's Prophecy,' a short oratorio, performed