Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 4.djvu/671

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GREATHEED.
655
GREGORIAN TONES.

by the Harmonic Union, June 11, 1856; music to Bishop Coxe's 'Hymn of Boyhood'; organ fugue in the Dorian mode; 'Quam dilecta,' varied for the organ; many harmonies to old Church melodies; a few original chants and hymn tunes; and some pieces for domestic use. He is also the author of 'A sketch of the History of Sacred Music from the earliest Age,' which appeared in the Church Builder (1876–1879), and a 'Treatise on the Science of Music' in Stewart's Teacher's Assistant (1878–9).

[ W. B. S. ]

GREEK PLAYS, Incidental Music to. The great interest which has of late years been taken at the English Universities in the performances of Greek dramas in the original has given opportunity for the composition of choruses and incidental music. As these works are of some importance in the history of English music, a list of them is here appended:—

The Agamemnon of Aeschylus; Oxford, June 1880. Music by Walter Parratt.
The Ajax of Sophocles; Cambridge, Nov. 28 to Dec. 2, 1882. Music by Sir G. A. Macfarren.
The Birds of Aristophanes; Cambridge, Nov. 27, to Dec. 1, 1883. Music by C. Hubert H. Parry.
The Eumenides of Aeschylus; Cambridge, Dec. 1 to 5, 1885. Music by C. V. Stanford.
The Alcestis of Euripides; Oxford, May 18 to 24. 1887. Music by C. H. Lloyd.
The Oedipus Tyrannus of Sophocles; Cambridge, Nov. 22 to 26, 1887. Music by C. V. Stanford.

[ M. ]

GREENE, Maurice, Mus. D. Line 16, for death read retirement. Greene died Dec. 1 (coffin-plate) or Dec. 3 (Vicar-Choral Book), not Sept. 1. On May 13, 1888, Dr. Greene's body was removed from St. Olave's, Jewry, and re-interred in St. Paul's Cathedral beside that of Dr. Boyce. (See 'Mus. Times,' June 1888.)

GREGOIR, Jacques Mathieu Joseph, born at Antwerp Jan. 18, 1817, made his first appearance as a pianist in Dussek's B minor Concerto when only eight years old. After the revolution of 1830 he was sent to Paris to study under Herz, but his health obliged him to return to his native country after a few years. Subsequently he went with his brother to Biberich, where he studied with Rummel until 1837, wnen he returned to Antwerp. His success as a performer was very great, and some compositions other than the numerous works written for his own instrument were favourably received. A 'Lauda Sion,' a cantata, 'Faust,' and an opera in three acts, 'Le Gondolier de Venise' were produced shortly before 1848, in which year he established himself for a time in Brussels. After a years' work as music-teacher in an English school at Bruges, he returned to Brussels. Many succesful concert-tours were undertaken by him in Germany, Switzerland, and elsewhere. He died at Brussels Oct. 29, 1876. His pianoforte works include a concerto, op. 100, several excellent books of studies, besides fantasias and other drawing-room pieces. He collaborated in several duets for piano and violin with Vieuxtemps and Léonard, and in several for piano and violoncello with Joseph Servais.

His brother, Edouard Georges Jacques, was born at Turnhout, Nov. 7, 1822. After the journey to Biberich mentioned above, he appeared in London in 1841, with success, and in the following year undertook a concert tour with the sisters Milanollo; in 1847 and 1849 several of his compositions were produced at Amsterdam and in Paris, and after a short tenure of a musical professorship at the Normal School at Lierre, he settled down at Antwerp, where he has since exercised a powerful influence in musical matters. He has produced a large number of compositions in various forms, among the most prominent of which are the following;—'Les Croisades,' historical symphony (Antwerp, 1846); 'La Vie,' opera (Antwerp. Feb. 6, 1848); 'Le Déluge' symphonic oratorio (Antwerp, Jan. 31, 1849); 'De Belgen in 1848,' drama with overture, airs, choruses, etc. (Brussels, 1851); 'La dernière nuit du Comte d'Egmont' (Brussels, 1851); 'Leicester,' drama with incidental music (Brussels, Feb. 13, 1854); 'Willem Beukels,' Flemish comic opera (Brussels, July 21, 1856), 'La Belle Bourbonnaise,' comic opera, and 'Marguérite,' grand opera. Two overtures, many part-songs for male chorus, numerous works for piano, organ and harmonium, to the interests of which last instrument he is particularly devoted, are also among his compositions. His contributions to musical literature are scarcely less abundant than his musical productions. He has taken an active part in musical journalism, besides writing a number of essays on historical subjects. These latter, though containing much valuable material, are not always reliable, as the writer is too much given to accepting information from any quarter. A History of the Organ, published at Brussels in 1865, is perhaps the most useful of his literary productions.

[ M. ]

GREGORIAN TONES, THE. (Lat. Toni Gregoriani; Toni Psalmorum; Fr. Les Chants Gregoriens; The Psalm-Tones, or Psalm-Tunes.)

The Gregorian Psalm-Tones are, beyond all controversy, the oldest Melodies now known to be in existence. So great is their antiquity, that no one has ever yet succeeded, with any degree of certainty, in tracing them to their original source. Though the arguments advanced by the Prince Abbot Gerbert von Hornau, Padre Martini, P. Kircher, P. Lambilotte, Mersenne, Rousseau, the Abbé Le Bœuf, Baini, and the later writers M. de Coussemaker, Kiesewetter, Gevaerts and Ambros, have thrown much valuable light upon the subject, not one of these speculators can be said to have arrived at a satisfactory conclusion. Three only of the numerous theories proposed seem to rest upon any reasonable basis—those, namely, which pretend to trace the so-called Gregorian Melodies to a Greek, an early Christian, or a Hebrew origin. On one point only are all authorities agreed. No doubt exists as to the historical fact, that the Psalm-Tones were sung by the primitive Christians, and, through them, handed down by oral tradition alone, until, through the efforts of S. Ambrose in the 4th century, and S. Gregory in the 6th, they were collected, classified, and reduced to rule and order, in a form which, protected by ecclesiastical authority, has remained