' I Capuletti.' He sang with success for several years at the San Carlo, also at Lisbon, Madrid, and Barcelona. He first appeared in England April 4, 1850, at the Royal Italian Opera, as Masaniello, and obtained immediate popularity in that and in his other parts of the season, viz. Pollio, Robert, Roderick Dhu, Otello ; April 20, Amenofi, on the production of a version of 'Mose in Egitto,' entitled 'Zora'; and July 25, in Leopold, on the production of 'La Juive' in England. He possessed a splendid tenor voice, of great richness of tone and volume, reaching to C in alt, which he gave with tremendous power, and 'as clear as a bell.' His taste and energy were equal, and he was an excellent singer, save for the persistent use of the 'vibrato.' In person he was singularly handsome, and was an admirable actor. He remained a member of the company until 1864 inclusive, excepting the season of 1857, singing in the winters at Paris, St. Petersburg, Madrid, North and South America, etc. His other parts included Arnold ; Ernani; Aug. 9, 51, Phaon (Saffo); Aug. 17, 52, Pietro il Grande; June 25, 53, Benvenuto Cellini; May 10, 55, Manrico (Trovatore) on production of those operas in England ; also, May 27, 51, Florestan (Fidelio); July 15, 52, Ugo (Spohr's Faust) ; Aug. 5, 58, Zampa ; July 2, 63, Gounod's Faust on the revival or production of the operas at Covent Garden, etc. He re- appeared at the same theatre in 1870 as Don Ottavio, the Duke (Rigoletto), John of Leyden ; and in 1877, at Her Majesty's, as Ottavio, Otello, and Manrico, and was well received, though his powers were on the wane. He is now living at Madrid, where he carries on a manufactory of arms, occasionally singing in public. [A.C.]
TAMBOUR DE BASQUE. [See TAM- BOURINE.] [V.cleP.]
TAMBOURIN. A long narrow drum used in Provence, beaten with a stick held in one hand, while the other hand plays on a pipe or flageolet with only three holes, called a gcdoubet. [See DRUM 3, vol. i. p. 466.] [V.deP.]
TAMBOURIN, an old Proven9al dance, in its ori- ginal form accompanied by a Flute and Tambour de Basque, whence the name was derived. The drum ac- companiment remained a characteristic feature when the dance was adopted on the stage, the bass of the tune generally consisting of single notes in the tonic or dominant. The Tambourin was in 2-4 time, of a lively character, and generally followed by a second Tambourin in the minor, after which the first was repeated. A well- known example occurs in Rameau's 'Pieces de Clavecin,' and has often been reprinted. It was introduced in Scene 7, Entre* III, of the same composer's 'Fetes d'He'be',' where it
is entitled 'Tambourin en Rondeau,' in allu- sion to its form, which is that of an 8-barred Rondeau followed by several 'reprises.' The same opera contains (in Entree I, Scenes 5 and 9) two other Tambourins, each consisting of two parts (major and minor). We give the first part of one of them as an example. Mile. Camargo is said to have excelled in this dance.
TAMBOURINE (Fr. Tambour de Basque). This consists of a wooden hoop, on one side of which is stretched a vellum head, the other side being open. Small rods with fly-nuts serve to tighten or loosen the head. It is beaten by the hand without a stick. Several pairs of small metal plates, called jingles, are fixed loosely round the hoop by a wire passing through the centres of each pair, so that they jingle whenever the tambourine is struck by the hand or shaken. Another effect is produced by rubbing the head with the finger. It is occasionally used in or- chestras, as in Weber's overture to 'Preciosa,' and at one time was to be seen in our military bands. In the last century it was a fashionable instrument for ladies. The instrument is probably of Oriental origin, being very possibly derived from the Hebrew Toph 1 (Exod. xv. 20). The Egyptian form is somewhat similar to our own, but heavier, as may be seen from the wood- cut, taken from Lane's ' Modern Egyptians.'
The French Tambourin is 'quite a different thing, and is described under the 3rd kind of Drums, as well as under its proper name. [DRUM 3, and TAMBOURIN.]
The modern Egyptians have drums (Dara- "bultkeh) with one skin or head, and open at the bot- tom, which is the only reason for classifying them with tambour- ines. [See vol. i. p. 463.] The an- nexed woodcut (also from Lane) shows two examples ; the first of wood, inlaid with tortoise-
1 This root survives in the Spanish adufe, a tambourine.