��Dr. W. Howard Russell, of the 'Times, 1 describes in chapter xviii. of ' My Diary North and South,' a song which made a remarkable impression on him, and which, from his descrip- tion, appears to be the following :
��walk - in* troo' do graveyard. Lay dis bo-dv down.
The following is a popular sontj among the Louisiana Creoles, and the words give an idea of the dialect :
��Ho de-ja rou-U tout la cote, Fancor ouar par-eil Fine. Solo.-^"^ *^~^
��belle La-y otto. Mo rou-lS tout la cote. Morou-W tout la
���col-o-nie; Mo pancor ouar griff-one la Qua ma gout comme la D.C.
The subject has so many ramifications that full treatment is impossible in this article. Those interested will find it discussed in the following treatises by writers who have lived at the South, and made special studies of the sub- ject:-
Dwight's Journal of Music, Nov. 8, 1862. Letter, Miss McKim, Philadelphia ; probably the first occasion when public attention was called to the Slave songs.
Continental Monthly, Philadelphia, August, 1863. Article, ' Under the Palmettos,' Mr. H. G. Spaulding, with specimens of the music.
Atlantic Monthly, June, 1867. Article, ' Negro Spirit- rials,' T. W. Higginson, with the words of many of the most popular hymns.
4 Slave Songs of the United States,' New York, 1871. Words and tunes, the largest collection published.
The Century, New York, Feb. 1886 ; Article, 4 Creole Slave Dances/ April. 1886 : article, 4 Creole Slave Songs.' Both by Mr. G. W. Cable. Especially interesting because of the descriptions of negro customs in Louisiana, some of which are of remote African origin, and because of the explanation of the peculiar dialect of the Louisiana negroes a mixture of French and English, sometimes a little Spanish, but each greatly modified by the negro's own method of speech. Gottschalk, who was a native of New Orleans, used some of the Creole music as subjects for free treatment on the pianoforte. Mr. J. A. Brock- hoven, of Cincinnati, has written a suite for orchestra, based on Creole tunes, which has been performed at con- certs in the United States. [F.H. J.]
NERUDA, MME. Add that on July 26, 1888, she married Sir Charles Halle'.
NESSLER, VICTOR, born Jan. 28, 1841, at Baldenheim in Alsace, at first studied theology at Strasburg, but the success of his essay at operatic composition, a work entitled 4 Fleur- ette/ and produced there in 1864, induced him
to devote himself to music. T He then went to Leipzig, and obtained various posts as conductor of male choral societies, for the use of which he wrote a set of part-songs, etc. In 1870 he be- came choral director at the Stadt Theater, and in 1879 conductor at the Carolatheater in the same town. Meanwhile various operas had been brought out with varying success. The list is as follows : Die Hochzeitsreise ' (1867) ; 4 Dornroschen's Brautfahrt' (1868); 'Nacht- wachter und Student' (1868); 4 Am Alexan- dertag* (1869); ' Irraingard,' a more ambitious work than the previous productions, in five acts (1876) ; 'DerRattenf anger von Hameln' (1879), an opera which rapidly spread his fame through- out Germany, and which has attained an enorm- ous success; 'Die wilde Jager' (1881); 'Der Trompeter von Sakkingen' (1884); and 'Otto cler Schutz ' (1886). The success of the ' Trom- peter ' was almost as great as that of the ' Rat- tenfanger.' Both owe their popularity to an easy superficiality of style, which commends itself to the less musical portion of the German public. When the ' Rattenf anger,' under the name of ' The Piper of Hamelin/ was produced at Covent Garden Theatre by the English Opera Company on Jan. 7, 1884, it achieved a well- merited failure. (Died May 27, 1890.) [M.]
NEUMARK, GEORG, born March 6, 1621, at Miihlhausen in Thuringia, became librarian and secretary to Duke Wilhelm II. of Weimar, where he died July 8, 1681. He was a renowned player on the harpsichord and viola da gnmba, but his fame rests upon his chorales, of some of which he wrote both words and music. Of these the most important is ' Wer nur den lieben Gott lasst walten.' This and other chorales by which his name is known appeared in one or other of his collections of hymns. These were ' Poetisch- musikalisches Lustwaldchen,' etc. 1652, and ait enlarged form of the same book, published at Jena in 1657 under the title of 'Poetisch- musikalisches Lustwald.' Two of his produc- tions seem to have been intended for the stage. They are 'Keuscher Liebesspiegel' (1649), which Dr. K. E. Schneider (' Das musikalisches Lied/ iii. 151) says is a kind of opera ; and ' Folituchea Gesprachsspiel ' (Weimar 1 662). [M.]
NEVADA, EMMA. See WIXOM, vol. iv. p. 477.
NEW PHILHARMONIC SOCIETY. Add that the society came to an end in 1879, the concert of June 21 being the last concert given under the above title. The scheme was carried on for three years more under the title of Ganz's Orchestral Concerts.
NIBELUNGEN. Add that the trilogy, or tetralogy, as it is called in the article, was given at Her Majesty's Theatre on May 5-9, 1882. Four performances of the entire work took place.
NICODE, JEAN-LOUIS, a pianist and com- poser of Polish birth, well known in Germany. He was born at Jerczik near Posen, in 1853, was brought at an early age to Berlin by his