Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 4.djvu/749

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��OAKELEY, SIB HERBERT STANLEY. Line 13 of article, add: He received in 1879 ^he degree of Mus. D. from the University of Oxford, and in 1881 that of LL.D. from the Uni- versity of Aberdeen ; he was created in the same year Composer of Music to Her Majesty in Scot- land. In 1886 the University of Toronto con- ferred on him the degree of D.C.L., and in 1 887 he received the degree of Mus. D. from the Univer- sity of Dublin. Line 14, for some 20 read 25, and add that 20 of the songs have been pub- lished in a 'Jubilee Album' dedicated to the Queen. Line 17, for 12 read 18. Line 18, add & Jubilee Cantata for 1887. Among the sacred compositions add a motet with orchestral ac- companiment. Add that the annual festival mentioned in the third line from the end of the article, is due to Sir Herbert Oakeley. (See KEID CONCERTS, vol. iii. p. 101.) He has lately (1886) prepared a scheme for musical graduation at the Edinburgh University, which has been approved by the senate, and only awaits the sanction of the Chancellor and the University Court to come into effect.

OBERTAS. l This is described in the ' Ency- klopedyja Powszechna' (Warsaw 1884) as the most popular of Polish national dances. The couples follow their leader, turning from right to left, and describing a circle or oval ring. The woman sometimes dances round her partner, and sometimes vice versd ; a song is often sung at the same time. The obertas is evidently regarded by the Poles as their national waltz, though, as will have been seen, it differs from the German waltz in several characteristics of the dance as well as in the style of the music associated with it by modern composers. Wieniawski's 'Mazurka caracte"ristique * for violin No. I, bears the sub- title Obertas ' ; it is deficient in the rough, wild character, without which the dance is scarcely to be distinguished from a mazurka. Boito in- introduces the obertas into the first scene of act i. of 'Mefistofele':

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� �gettate con forza.

3 7 1"

�r r r

From 'ObracacY otid meaning, con ond syllable.

�signifying to turn round. 'Obertas' has a fusion or perplexity. The accent lies on the

�� � �Basses.

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1^ I-P ? =!- | p 8 =1 P


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�* * etc.

� � ��Whether Boito was guilty of an anachronism in representing his 1 6th century Frankfort populace indulging in a national dance of Poland (to say nothing of Polish exclamations) is open to ques- tion. The Mazurka found its way into North- Germany only after August III. of Saxony as- cended the throne in 1733 (Brockhaus). Had the obertas been adopted at any time by the German people, such writers as Angerstein, Czerwinski, Voss, etc, could not have ignored it in their works on the art and history of the Dance; though their neglect to include the name of a dance known only in Poland, in their enumeration of dances of all nations, is at least excusable. However, the charm of these stirring strains, no doubt suggested to Boito by his Polish mother, renders very welcome the composer's possible deviation from historic truth. Wieniawski and Boito suggest by a drone bass in fifths the rude accompaniment of the bagpipes or other primitive combination of instruments.

Tutto vanno alia rinfusa Sulla musica confusa Cosi far la cornamusa

writes Boito for his chorus. The wild and romp- ing nature of this dance and music must have proved without attraction for Chopin, who has at any rate not included by name an Obertas among his Mazurkas. Nevertheless, we may recognize that in C major, op. 56, no. 2 (Vivace), as being in harmony and rhythm the nearest approach to the Obertas attempted by this fas- tidious and undramatic composer. [L.M.M.] OCCASIONAL ORATORIO, THE. A work of Handel, probably intended to celebrate the failure of the Jacobite rising of 1745. It con- sists of an overture and three parts, among which are ' O liberty,' afterwards transferred to ' Judas Maccabeus/ some of the choruses from ' Israel in Egypt ' and a Coronation Anthem, introduced into Part III. The words of Part I. are in great part taken from Milton's Psalms, and many numbers appear to be written by Dr. Morell. (See pref. to the work in the Handelgesellschaft edition.) It was performed at Covent Garden on Feb. 14, 19, and 26, 1746. (Rockstro's Life of Handel.) [M.]

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