Page:A grammar of the Bohemian or Cech language.djvu/89
he was made an abbot. So also the instrumental is used in comparisons, as leti bystrým sokolem, he flies like a swift falcon. Many verbs govern an instrumental, as trhnouti, to tear; proslavili se, to make oneself celebrated; zapáchali, to smell; slouli, to be called; naplniti, to fill, &c. Among these may be included verbs signifying to rule, as aby císař německý mohl rozkazovali oběma, that the German Emperor might rule both.
The. locative is only used with prepositions.
The substantive verb in the present tense is generally omitted; bylo and nebylo are used impersonally, it was, or was not,—once on a time; nebylo žádného jednáni, there was no union, mil from miti is used in the sense of ought, as mil tam býlí, he ought to have been there.
The Sequence of the Tenses.
This seems to be observed more accurately in Bohemian than in other Slavonic languages (e. g. Russian), thus: Král Jan stál se zástupem svým pozadu; i vidouce páni celtí, kteří s nim tu byli, že jest bitva ztracena, radili aby hleděl zachovali Život sv&j a s jinými nastoupil cestu zpáteční, King John was behind his supporters, and the Bohemian lords who were with him, seeing that the battle was lost, made effort that he should take care to preserve his life and retire with the others.
This is generally expressed b'y the use of abych with the past tense, as jsem na tom abych mluvil, I am just going to speak. abych is regularly inflected, as člověk ji, aby žil, man eats that he may live ; obstrčeni jazyka českého zařízeními císaře Josefa nedovedlo toho, aby v národe samém vyhasla přirozená láska ke své mluve mateřské, the attack on the Bohemian language by the