Page:A simplified grammar of the Danish language.djvu/66

From Wikisource
Jump to: navigation, search
This page has been proofread, but needs to be validated.
54
danish grammar.

at komme usåret tilbage fra Krigen, 'The Major has been so fortunate as to return unwounded from the war.' Many writers deviate from this rule for the sake of euphony, and prefer the less correct form lykkeds.

Nice distinctions of meaning are conveyed by the respective use of a reflective pronoun, or of the passive form; as, de så hinanden i Går, and de sås i Går, 'they saw each other yesterday;' the former implying simply that they saw one another, while the latter conveys the meaning that they were brought into close contact with one another, and that they actually met.

Certain affixes, as be, er, for, mis, impart a more comprehensive, or ideal meaning to some primary verbs; as, at gribe, 'to grasp;' at begribe, 'to comprehend;' at kende, 'to know;' at erkende, 'to recognize;' at tjæne, 'to serve;' at fortjæne, 'to deserve;' at danne, 'to create;' at misdanne, 'to deform.'

The three first named of these affixes, be, er and for, are German, and usually occur in verbs derived from that language; as, at begribe, 'to understand;' at erstatte, 'to indemnify;' at forsætte, 'to misplace;' The for represents the German ver, and these three alien affixes are unaccentuated; while in the following particles, fore, und, mis, and over, the vowels are accentuated; as, forebilde, 'to prefigure;' und, 'to evade;' misforstå, 'to misunderstand;' overköre, 'to drive over.'

The same rule of accentuation holds good in regard to nouns and adjectives; as, Forstand, 'understanding' (German Verstand); undselig, 'bashful;' Overhoved, 'supreme head.'