THE FIRST GERMAN MUNICIPAL EXPOSITION 437
wood is used. On the concrete foundation is laid a soft cement, into which (in Dresden) the rectangular wood blocks are set. In Dresden the blocks are laid closely, with nothing between them. In Bremen they are set upon felt (laid on the concrete foundation) and have strips of felt between them. Such a pavement is the most expensive costing in Dresden almost three times as much to lay as does macadamized pave- ment. When first-class wood is selected and the workmanship is good, these quiet, clean, elastic pavements are also durable. Moreover, to prevent the slipping of horses in wet weather, very fine gravel is strewn lightly over the pavement. The traffic pounds this into the wood and makes a hard surface which resists wear, without causing deterioration of the pavement.
Lighting. Electricity and gas are made for lighting purposes, partly by the municipalities and partly by companies with fran chises from the municipality. For example, in the following cities electrical works are owned and operated by the munici- pality: Bielefeld, Breslau, Cassel, Coin, Darmstadt, Dortmund, Dresden, Dusseldorf, Duisburg, Elberfeld, Erfurt, Frankfurt a. ML, Halle, Hannover, Konigsberg, Mainz, Pforzheim, Stuttgart. In these cities the electrical works are owned by the munici- pality and leased to private operating companies: Chemnitz, Charlottenburg, Plauen i. V., Wurzburg. In Berlin, Hamburg, Leipzig, Magdeburg, and Strassburg the electrical works are owned and operated by private companies on long-term fran- chises. Only these twenty-seven out of 780 electrical works are represented in the exposition. Coin and Frankfurt a. M., in order to have centrally located electrical works, have constructed them underground. The constant improvements in gas-lighting, together with its cheapness and its availability for fuel, will pre- vent its being replaced by electricity at least for a long time to come. Dresden presents an outfit of gas burners, for light and for fuel, together with automatic arrangement for selling gas by the ten-pfennig worth. Lights, stoves, meter, and slot machine are all installed free of charge.
Street railways. The use of electricity in German cities is greatly increased by the demand for power for street railways,