the Confederate army as lieutenant of infantry and captain of cavalry. At the close of the war he studied law, was admitted to the bar, and began to practise at Woodstock. Va., where he continued to reside. His first civil office was that of commonwealth's attorney for his county, which he held for two terms. He was then elected and re-elected to the state house of delegates, serving for four years, and subsequently sat in the senate of Virginia for the same period. Since 1870 he edited three local newspapers, “The Tenth Legion,” “The Shenandoah Democrat,” and “The Virginian.” He was a member of the state committee of the Conservative party until 1875, a presidential elector on the Democratic ticket in 1876, and on the “Readjuster” ticket in 1880. He was commonwealth's attorney and state senator when, in 1881, he was elected to the U. S. senate as a Readjuster in the place of John W. Johnston, Conservative. His term of service expired on 3 March, 1889.
RIDEING, William Henry, author, b. in Liverpool, England, 17 Feb., 1853. His father was an officer in the service of the Cunard line of steamers. After the death of his mother the son went to Chicago, Ill., where he remained until 1870. He early began writing for the press, and soon became connected with several journals. In 1874 he gave up newspaper work to devote himself entirely to literature and magazine writing. He made several trips to Europe and elsewhere with different artists to obtain material on special subjects. In 1878 he served as special correspondent with the Wheeler surveying expedition in Colorado, New Mexico, Nevada, California, and Arizona. In 1881-'3 Mr. Rideing edited “Dramatic Notes” in London, England. On his return he again entered journalism in Boston, where he still remains (1898). Among his publications are “Pacific Railways Illustrated” (New York, 1878); “A-Saddle in the Wild West” (London, 1879); “Stray Moments with Thackeray” (New York, 1880); “Boys in the Mountains” (1882); “Boys Coastwise” (1884); “Thackeray's London” (London, 1885); “Young Folks' History of London” (Boston, 1885); “A Little Upstart” (1885); and “The Boyhood of Living Authors” (1887).
RIDER, George Thomas, clergyman, b. in Rice City, R. I., 21 Feb., 1829; d. in New York, 14 Aug., 1894. He was graduated at Trinity, and took orders in the Protestant Episcopal church. From 1853 till 1855 he was rector of St. John's, Canandaigua. N. Y., and from 1856 till 1860 of St. John's, Pittsburg, Pa., which latter church edifice was built under his supervision. In 1860 he removed to Poughkeepsie, N. Y., where he conducted the Cottage Hill seminary for young ladies till 1874. He had since devoted his time to literary labor, and had been a contributor to many journals and periodicals. For many years he was on the editorial staff of the New York “Churchman.” Mr. Rider had published “Plain Music for the Book of Common Prayer” (New York, 1854); “Lyra Anglicana, or a Hymnal of Sacred Poetry, selected from the Best English Writers, and arranged after the Order of the Apostles' Creed”; and “Lyra Americana, or Verses of Praise and Faith from American Poets” (1864).
RIDGAWAY, Henry Bascom, clergyman, b. in Talbot county, Md., 7 Sept., 1830. He was graduated at Dickinson in 1849, studied theology, and was ordained a minister of the Methodist Episcopal church. He held pastorates successively in Virginia, Baltimore, Portland, Me., New York city, and Cincinnati, Ohio. In 1882 he became professor of historical theology in Garrett biblical institute, Evanston, Ill., and in 1884 he was transferred to the chair of practical theology. He was fraternal delegate to the Methodist Episcopal church, south, in 1882, and was one of the regular speakers in the Centennial conference at Baltimore in 1881. He is the author of “The Life of Alfred Cookman” (New York, 1871); “The Lord's Land: A Narrative of Travels in Sinai and Palestine in 1873-'4” (1876); “The Life of Bishop Edward S. Janes” (1882); “Bishop Beverly Waugh” (1883); and “Bishop Mathew Simpson” (1885).
RIDGE, Major, Cherokee chief, b. in Highwassee, in what is now the state of Georgia, about 1771; d. on the Cherokee reservation, 22 June, 1839. From his early years he was taught patience and self-denial, and to undergo fatigue; on reaching the proper age he was initiated as one of the warriors of the tribe with due solemnities. At fourteen he joined a war-party against the whites at Cheestoyce, and afterward another that attacked Knoxville, Tenn. When he was twenty-one years old he was chosen a member of the Cherokee council. He proved a valuable counsellor, and at the second session proposed many useful laws. Subsequently he won the confidence of his people, and became one of the chief men of the nation. When the question of deporting the Cherokees from the state of Georgia to a reservation west of Mississippi was mooted, it was found that the nation was divided into two hostile camps, one of which bitterly opposed removal, while the other favored it. The former was headed by John Ross, the principal chief, while the other was represented by Major Ridge, his son John, Elias Boudinot, Charles Vann, and others. Two commissioners on the part of the United States held several meetings with both parties, and finally made a treaty, the negotiations extending over a period of three years. The westward journey of 600 or 700 miles was performed in four or five months, during which time, on account of the intense heat and other discomforts, over 4,000 Indians perished. In June, 1839, Major Ridge, his son John, and Elias Boudinot were assassinated by members, it is supposed, of the party that were opposed to removal. Major Ridge was waylaid about fifty miles from his home and shot. — His son, John, Indian chief, was the second of five children. He received a good education, being first taught by Moravian missionaries, then at an academy at Knoxville, Tenn., and finally in the foreign mission-school in Connecticut. On returning home he began his career as a public man, and devoted all his energies to endeavoring to organize the Cherokee nation into an independent government. Having taken an active part in negotiating the unpopular treaty at New Echota, by which the removal of his nation was finally agreed upon, he was taken from his bed in the early morning and nearly cut to pieces with knives. — John's son, John R., journalist, d. in Grass Valley, Nevada co., Cal., 5 Oct., 1867, was a writer of much ability, and possessed some poetic talent. He was at different times connected with several California journals.
RIDGELEY, Charles Goodwin, naval officer, b. in Baltimore, Md., in 1784; d. there, 8 Feb., 1848. He entered the navy as midshipman, 10 Oct., 1799, cruised in the Mediterranean with Preble in the Tripolitan war in 1804-'5, and received a vote of thanks and sword for his gallant conduct. He was commissioned lieutenant, 2 Feb., 1807, served on the lakes, was commissioned master-commandant. 24 July, 1813, and commanded the brig “Jefferson” on Lake Ontario in 1814, and the “Erie ” and “Independence” in Bainbridge's squadron during and after the Algerine war in 1815-'17. He