Page:Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography (1900, volume 5).djvu/360

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ROUARIE
ROTHROCK

ROTHROCK, Joseph Trimble, physician, b. in McVeytown, Pa., 9 April, 1839. He was graduated at the Lawrence scientific school of Harvard in 1864 and at the medical department of the University of Pennsylvania in 1868. Dr. Rothrock began practice in Centre county, Pa., but in 1870 removed to Wilkesbarre, making a specialty of diseases of the eye and ear, and in 1876 established the North Mountain school of physical culture in Luzerne county, also during the same year he was appointed by the American philosophical society lecturer on forestry in execution of the Michaux legacy, and so has been able to contribute largely toward developing the growing forestry sentiment in Pennsylvania. In 1877 he was called to the chair of botany in the University of Pennsylvania, which he has since held. During the civil war he entered the army as a private in the 131st Pennsylvania regiment, and became a captain in the 20th Pennsylvania cavalry. In 1865-'6 he was associated with the exploring party of the Western Union extension telegraph in British Columbia, and in 1873-'5 he was botanist and surgeon to the Geographical and geological exploration and survey west of the 100th meridian under Lieut. George M. Wheeler. He is a member of the American philosophical society and of other scientific societies. Besides his account in vol. vi. of Lieut. Wheeler's reports, he is the author of various papers in medical journals, and of botanical memoirs.


ROTOURS, Jean Julien Angot (ro-toor), Baron des, French colonial governor, b. in the castle of Rotours, Orme, 2 June, 1778; d. in Paris, 28 March, 1844. He entered the navy, 11 June, 1791, took part in the expedition of 1793 to Santo Domingo, and assisted in the engagement at Cape Français, 21 June, where, although bearing a flag of truce, he was taken prisoner by the negroes, but afterward released, and went on an American merchant-vessel to Philadelphia, where he was furnished the means of returning to France. He was promoted commander in 1808, and captain in 1814, and in 1816-'19 made a successful campaign in the West Indian waters, for which he was created baron, 25 May, 1819. Afterward he was despatched with a corvette to protect the French fisheries on the coast of Newfoundland, when a difficulty with England threatened to end in war, and was promoted rear-admiral in 1821. Rotours was appointed governor-general of Guadeloupe in 1826, arrived at Basse-Terre on 31 May, and found that the city had been nearly destroyed by the hurricane of 26 July, 1825. He immediately began to rebuild it on a more elaborate plan, and, after inquiring into the wants of the colony, proposed to the king a plan to unify the colonial administration, by which the island was allowed partial self-government through delegates that formed a council-general. Rotours also provided means to check the return of yellow-fever epidemics, established a hospital and a camp for the soldiers in Matouba, at the coolest station in the mountains, drained the deadly marshes that surrounded Pointe-a-Pitre, executed great works in that harbor, completed the canal Vatable, and also constructed in Grande Terre several other canals, which proved of great benefit to the colony. One of these has since received the name of Canal des Rotours. He founded the city of Bordeaux-Bourg, erected schools, churches, and bridges, and opened roads. Under his administration Guadeloupe attained a high state of prosperity, and when Rotours obtained his recall in May, 1830, regret was felt at his departure. His works include “Mémoire sur le mode de procédure criminelle en vigueur à la Guadeloupe” (Paris, 1826).

   

ROTTERMUND, Baron de, French geologist, b. in France in 1813; d. in Montreux, Switzerland, in 1858. He came to Canada, and was for some time in the service of the crown-lands department as an inspector of mines. He is principally remembered because of his attacks upon T. Sterry Hunt, the geologist, in 1850, and for his opposition to the theory of Sir William Logan that there are no coal-mines in Lower Canada. The baron held that coal existed both at Gaspé and Quebec, having discovered particles at the latter place. French geologists to whom these particles were submitted agreed with him, but finally the correctness of Sir William Logan's opinion was demonstrated. He wrote a report to the mayor of Quebec on combustible minerals to be found in that city.


ROUARIE, Armand Tuffin (roo-ah-ree), Marquis de la, French soldier, b. in the castle of Rouarie, near Rennes, 14 April, 1756; d. in the castle of La Guyomarais, near Lamballe, Brittany, 30 Jan., 1793. He was admitted in 1775 to the bodyguard of the king, but a duel about an actress caused his dismissal. Chagrin and anger led him to attempt suicide, but his life was saved and he came to the United States, 10 May, 1777, under the assumed name of Count Armand. Congress accepted his services and gave him the commission of colonel. He participated in the engagement at Red Bank, was with Lafayette in New Jersey, was active in Westchester county, N. Y., and in Connecticut, and served under Gen. Horatio Gates against Cornwallis. He opposed the forces of Simcoe, Emmerick, and Barremore; he captured the last-named near King's Bridge, 8 Nov., 1779, and defeated the others. In the following year his corps was incorporated with Pulaski's, and he rendered food service at Warren Tavern and in central New Jersey. Toward the beginning of 1781 he was called away to France on account of family matters, but he returned in time to participate in the victory of Yorktown, and brought with him a supply of clothing and ammunition. He took part in the campaign of 1782 in the south, and was very severe in his denunciation of Gen. Gates on account of the defeat at Camden. On 26 March, 1783, he was made brigadier-general by congress and became a member of the Society of the Cincinnati. After the conclusion of peace he returned to France, where he lived in private till 1788, when he was elected one of the twelve deputies sent by the province of Brittany to plead before the king for the preservation of its privileges. The king, being irritated by his inconsiderate zeal, committed him to the Bastille for a few weeks. On his release in 1789 be bitterly denounced the principles of the revolution, and planned to unite the provinces of Brittany, Anjou, and Poitou, and to raise an army to operate with the allies. His plans were approved by the brothers of Louis XVI. at Coblentz, 5 Dec., 1791, and he was appointed high royal commissioner in Brittany. On 5 March, 1792, the chiefs of the confederacy met at his castle, and everything was in readiness for action, when the plot was revealed to the legislative assembly, and troops were sent to secure Rouarie. He eluded them for several months, but he was taken sick and died after a short illness in the castle of Guyomarais. His papers, which he had buried in an iron box six feet below the surface of the soil, were discovered by accident, and their contents caused the arrest of the whole family of Guyomarais, of which twelve members were sent to the scaffold. A few weeks later the great uprising of Les Chouans was organized in Vendée on the plans that were left by La Rouarie. He was a man of great ability, urbane