Brunswick, Me., between 1807 and 1859” (1867); “Results of Meteorological Observations made at Marietta, Ohio, between 1826 and 1859, Inclusive” (1868); “ Tables and Results of the Precipitation in Rain and Snow in the United States, and at Some Stations in Adjacent Parts of North America, and in Central and South America” (1872; a second edition, 1881); “Tables, Distribution, and Variations of the Atmospheric Temperature in the United States and Some Adjacent Parts of America” (1876); and “Magnetic Charts of the United States,” showing the distribution of the declination, the dip and the intensity of the magnetic force (1882 and 1885).
SCHOULER, William (skool'-er), journalist, b. in Kilbarchan, Scotland, 31 Dec., 1814; d. in West Roxbury, Mass., 24 Oct., 1872. He was brought to this country in 1815, received a common-school education, and engaged in calico printing. He was the proprietor and editor of the Lowell “Courier” in 1841-'7, in 1847-'53 joint proprietor and editor of the Boston “Daily Atlas,” in 1853-'6 one of the editors of the Cincinnati “Gazette,” in 1856-'8 editor of the “Ohio State Journal,” and in 1858 of the Boston “Atlas and Bee.” He was four times elected to the Massachusetts house of representatives and once to the senate. In 1853 he was a member of the Massachusetts constitutional convention, and was chosen clerk of the house of representatives. In 1857 he was adjutant-general of Ohio, and from 1860 till 1866 held the same office in Massachusetts. He was the author of “History of Massachusetts in the Civil War” (2 vols., Boston, 1868-'71). — His son, James, lawyer, b. in West Cambridge (now Arlington), Mass., 20 March, 1839, was graduated at Harvard in 1859, studied law, and began to practise in Boston. In August, 1862, he joined the National army, and served for nearly a year as a lieutenant in the signal service. Since 1884 he has been a lecturer in the Boston university law-school and in the National law university, Washington, D. C. He has published legal treatises “On Domestic Relations” (Boston, 1870); “On Personal Property” (2 vols., 1873-'6); “On Bailments, including Carriers” (1880); “On Husband and Wife” (1882); “On Executors and Administrators” (1883); and “On Wills” (1887); also a “ History of the United States under the Constitution,” bringing it down to 1861 (5 vols., New York, 1880-'91; new edition, 1895); “Thomas Jefferson” (1893); and “Historical Briefs” (1896).
SCHOUTEN, Willem Cornelis (shoo'-ten), Dutch navigator, b. in Hoorn in 1567; d. in Antongil bay, Madagascar, in 1625. He had been for years in the employ of the Dutch East India company, when he quarrelled with one of the directors and resigned in 1610. From that time he resolved to find a new route to the Indies, eluding the charter of the East India company. He interested in his scheme Hoorn's richest citizen, Isaac Lemaire, and they formed a company with a capital of 200,000 florins, one half being furnished by Isaac Lemaire and an eighth by Schouten. The expedition left the Texel, 14 June, 1615, Schouten being the commander, and a son of Isaac, James Lemaire, acting as his deputy and director-general. The details of the discoveries are to be found in the article Lemaire, James. The navigators were arrested in Batavia by George Spielbergen for infringing upon the privileges of the East India company, but, on Schouten's arrival in Holland, he secured an acquittal, and even compelled the company to pay him heavy damages. He resumed the exercise of his profession, and was returning to Europe after a successful voyage to the Indies, when stress of weather forced him to enter the Bay of Antongil, and he died there. A narrative of Schouten's expedition was written by Aris Classen, the clerk of the admiral, and published under the title “Scheeps-Journal en Beschrijving van de bewonderensvaardige Reis gemaakt door Willem Cornelis Schouten, geboren te Hoorn, toen hy heeft outdekt ten Zuiden van de zee-engte van Magellan een nieuwe doorgang in de groote Zuidzee” (Amsterdam, 1617). It was translated into French (Amsterdam, 1617), into German (Arnheim, 1618), and into Latin (Amsterdam, 1619). The name of Schouten has been given to an island that he discovered on the northern coast of New Guinea.
SCHREIBER, Collingwood, Canadian engineer, b. in Colchester, Essex, England, 14 Dec., 1831. He came to Canada in 1852, and was engaged on the engineering staff of the Hamilton and Toronto railway till its completion in 1856. He then engaged in private engineering in Toronto till 1860, when he entered the service of the Northern railway of Canada. In 1863 he was engaged by the government of Nova Scotia as division engineer on the Pictou railway, and he continued in this service till 1867, when the works were completed. In 1868 the Dominion government appointed him to take charge of the surveys in connection with the Intercolonial railway, of the route by the way of Lake Temisconata; and in 1869, as superintending engineer, he was placed in charge of the Eastern extension railway. In 1871 he was appointed superintending engineer and commissioner's agent for the entire length of the Intercolonial railway, which post he held till 1873, when he was made chief engineer of government railways in operation, and in 1880 he was also made chief engineer of the survey of the Canadian Pacific railway. In 1892 he was appointed chief engineer of railways and canals in Canada, and deputy minister of the same, which position he still holds.
SCHRIVER, Edmund, soldier, b. in York, Pa., 16 Sept., 1812; d. in Washington, 11 Feb., 1891. He was graduated at the U. S. military academy, assigned to the 2d artillery, became 1st lieutenant, and on 7 July, 1838, captain on the staff and assistant to the adjutant-general, serving in the Florida war of 1839. He held the rank of captain in the 2d artillery from 17 Aug., 1842, till 18 June, 1846, resigned his commission on 31 July, 1846, and was treasurer of the Saratoga and Washington railroad company, N. Y., from 1847 till 1852, of the Saratoga and Schenectady railroad from 1847 till 1861, and of the Rensselaer and Saratoga railroad from 1847 till 1861, being president of the last road from 1851 till 1861. He re-entered the army on 14 May, 1861, as lieutenant-colonel of the llth infantry, became aide-de-camp to Gov. Edwin D. Morgan, of New York, recruited, organized, and instructed his regiment at Fort Independence, Mass., and became colonel on the staff and additional aide-de-camp on 18 May, 1862, having been made chief of staff of the 1st corps in the Army of the Potomac. He served in the Shenandoah and the northern Virginia campaigns, and was appointed colonel on the staff and inspector-general, U. S. army, on 13 March, 1863, after serving as acting inspector-general from January till March, 1863. He was at Chancellorsville and Gettysburg, and afterward bore thirty-one battle-flags and other trophies to the war department. He participated in the Richmond campaign from the Rapidan to Petersburg, was on special duty under the orders of the secretary of war from 22 March till 23 June, 1865, and was brevetted brigadier-general, U. S. Army, for faithful