Theory of the First Principles of the Differential Calculus” (1865); “A New Theory of Planetary Motion” (1866); and “On a Process of Integration used in the Case of a Planet's Orbit disturbed by Small Forces ” (1867). He also published “A Treatise on Elementary and Higher Algebra” (New York, 1859), and “A Treatise on the Differential and Integral Calculus” (1869). See a sketch of his life by Joseph P. Bradley in “Biographical Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences” (Washington, 1886).
STRONG, Titus, clergyman, b. in Brighton, Mass., 26 Jan., 1787; d. in Greenfield, Mass., in June, 1855. At the age of fourteen he went into a printing-office in Northampton, Mass., to learn the trade, and continued there for four years. Next he began the study of law, but gave it up by reason of failing health. He taught in various places, and began to study theology in 1807. Although of a Congregationalist family, he sought for orders in the Protestant Episcopal church in 1812. He was ordained deacon in Dedham, Mass., 24 March, 1814, by Bishop Griswold, and priest in St. James's church, Greenfield, 7 April, 1814, by the same bishop. He became rector of the church in Greenfield, and held that post during the rest of his life. Trinity gave him the degree of D. D. in 1839. Dr. Strong aided in the growth of the Episcopal church in Massachusetts, Vermont, and New Hampshire. He published “Tears of Columbia, a Political Poem” (1812); “A Candid Examination of the Episcopal Church” (1818); “Young Scholar's Manual” (1821); “The Deerfield Captive, a Tale for Children” (1831); and “A Sermon on the Death of Rev. Dr. William Croswell ” (Boston, 1851). He also published occasional sermons and addresses, and contributed freely to journals and magazines on religious and other topics.
STROTHER, David Hunter, author, b. in Martinsburg, Va. (now W. Va.), 16 Sept., 1816; d. in Charleston, W. Va., 8 March, 1888. In 1829 he went to Philadelphia to study drawing with Pietro Ancora, and seven years later became a pupil of Samuel F. B. Morse in New York. He went to the west in 1838, travelling through various states, and in 1840 visited Europe, remaining five years. On his return he settled in New York, where, under the direction of John G. Chapman, he acquired the art of drawing on wood for the engravers. In 1848 he returned to his native place, and four years later published, under the pen-name of “Porte Crayon,” the first of his series of papers in “Harper's Magazine.” They relate chiefly to Virginia and the south, and were illustrated by himself. Many of them were afterward published in book-form under the title of “The Blackwater Chronicle” (New York, 1853) and “Virginia Illustrated” (1857). At the opening of the war in 1861 he joined the National army as captain and assistant adjutant-general, became colonel of the 3d West Virginia cavalry, and resigned in September, 1864. In 1865 he received the brevet of brigadier-general of volunteers. After his return to his home at Berkeley Springs he continued for several years to furnish sketches to the magazines. He was a clever writer and an artist of considerable ability. His pencil was also occasionally employed in illustrating the works of others, notably John P. Kennedy's “Swallow Barn” and “Rob of the Bowl.” In 1879 he was appointed consul-general to Mexico, which post he held until 1885.
STROUD, George McDowell, jurist, b. in Stroudsburg, Pa., 12 Oct., 1795; d. in Germantown, Pa., 29 June, 1875. He was graduated at Princeton in 1817, and admitted to the bar of Pennsylvania in 1819. For many years he was judge of the district court of Philadelphia. He was a contributor to law magazines and the author of a volume entitled “Sketch of the Laws relative to Slavery in the Several States ” (Philadelphia, 1827; enlarged ed., 1856).
STRUENSEE, Karl (stroo'-en-zay), German navigator, b. in Bremen about 1595; d. in Amsterdam about 1650. He was the son of a pilot, entered the service of the Dutch East India company, and acquired the reputation of a successful navigator. The discovery of the Strait of Lemaire, which allowed the Dutch to reach the Pacific ocean in a few days, greatly annoyed the Spanish authorities, and they intended to fortify the strait, which they claimed to be a Spanish possession. The states-general of Holland, with the intention of anticipating Spain, ordered Struensee with a fleet to choose a favorable point for constructing a fortress. Sailing from the Texel in 1643, Struensee entered the Strait of Lemaire in December, and stopping at Mauritius bay, he made a survey of the small Stathouder islands, which he found the most convenient for building a fort to command the strait. He afterward sailed around Staten-land. taking exact astronomical observations at different points of the coast, and on his return to the Strait of Lemaire made numerous soundings. After his arrival in Amsterdam he presented his report to the states-general, but the project of fortifying the strait was afterward abandoned as impracticable. A narrative of his journey was written by his clerk under the title “Beschryving der Reis, ondernomen onder gezag en voor kosten van de Edele Heeren der Staten generaal, naar de Zëeengte van Le Maire en de Zuidzee door Karl Struensee van Bremen” (Amsterdam, 1645; French version, 1647; Latin, 1648).
STRUVE, Gustav von, German agitator, b. in Munich, Bavaria, 11 Oct., 1805; d. in Vienna, Austria, 21 Aug., 1870. He studied law, spent a short time in the diplomatic service of the duke of Oldenburg, then settled as an advocate in Mannheim, Baden, and soon became known as a Liberal journalist and political speaker. He also gave attention to phrenology, and published three books on the subject. As editor of the “Mannheimer Journal,” he was repeatedly condemned to imprisonment. When he was compelled in 1846 to retire from the management of this paper, he founded the “Deutsche Zuschauer,” in which he addressed his radical sentiments to a larger circle of readers. He was one of the leaders of the Baden uprising of 1848, and attempted, with Friedrich Hecker, to establish a republic. After the failure of the first insurrection, he fled to France, and thence to Switzerland, where he and Carl P. Heinzen drew up a “plan for revolutionizing and republicanizing Germany.” In September, 1848, he returned with a body of followers to Baden, and stirred up a second insurrection. After his defeat at Stauffen, he was arrested, 25 Sept., 1848, and