Logical Analysis of the State
I. 1 elements of which the state is composed, in order that we may see * in what they differ from one another, and whether any scientific distinction can be drawn between the different kinds of rule  .2 He who thus considers things in their first growth and origin, whether a state or anything else, will obtain the 2clearest view of them. In the first place (i) there must be a union of those who cannot exist without each other; for example, of male and female, that the race may continue; and this is a union which is formed, not of deliberate purpose, but because, in common with other animals and with plants, man kind have a natural desire to leave behind them an image of themselves. And (2) there must be a union of natural ruler and subject, that both may be preserved. For he who can foresee with Ins mind is by nature intended to be lord and master, and he who can work with his body is a subject, and 3
1252 b by nature a slave; hence master and slave have the same interest. Nature, however, has distinguished between the female and the slave. For she is not niggardly, like the smith who fashions the Delphian knife for many uses; she makes each thing for a single use, and every instrument is best made when intended for one and not for many uses. 4 But among barbarians no distinction is made between women and slaves, because there is no natural ruler among them: they are a community of slaves, male and female. Wherefore the poets say, It is meet that Hellenes should rule over barbarians ; 
- Or, with Bernays, how the different kinds of rule differ from one another, and generally whether any scientific result can be attained about each one of them.
- Eurip. Iphig. in Aulid. 1400.