Page:Bright's Anglo-Saxon Reader.djvu/18

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AN OUTLINE OF ANGLO-SAXON GRAMMAR.

(f) s has in all positions, the voiceless sound, except for a single s between vowels, which has the voiced sound (z); e.g. wesan, rīsan, etc.

(g) ð and þ are used without distinction to denote the dental spirant th, in all positions, presumably the voiceless spirant (as in English thin), except (as in the case of f (between vowels and voiced consonants where the voiced spirant (as in English thine) is employed; e.g. ōðor, cweðan, siððan, weorðan, etc. The voiced spirant may also be employed in the pronomial forms ðū, ðæt, ðēs, etc.

ACCENTUATION.

5. In Anglo-Saxon words are accented according to the following rules:

Rule I.—Simple (uncompounded) words are accented on the first syllable (the radical syllable); derivative and inflectional syllables are unaccented.

Thus, fǽder, dágas, léornunga, túnge, túngan, túngena, swéotole, bérende, frę́mede, wúnode, séalfode.

Note.—There are no tests by which to determine the limits in prose of a secondary stress on derivative and inflectional syllables. In metrical usage a secondary stress may fall on the ptc. ending -ende; on the adj. and pron. endings -en, -er, -ig; on the patronymic ending -ing; on the subst. endings -ung, -ing, -er; on the inflectional ending (gen. pl.) -ena; on the class-vowel in verbs of the second weak conjugation, etc. See the chapter on Versification.

Rule II.—Compound words constitute two classes, (1) substantive compounds, and (2) verbal compounds.

A substantive compound receives the chief stress upon the first syllable of its first component (cf. Rule I); the accent of the second component is usually retained as a secondary stress.

A verbal compound is accented on the radical syllable of the verb; the prefix is therefore unaccented.