Page:Bright's Anglo-Saxon Reader.djvu/22

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xvi
AN OUTLINE OF ANGLO-SAXON GRAMMAR.

*cēasi > cīese (i-umlaut), cheese; *sǣep > sceap, sheep; *sǣeron > scearon, sheared (pret. pl.).

(c) e into ie (i, y): *gefan > giefan, to give; *getan > gietan, to get; *sceran > scieran, to shear.

Note 1.—Before all vowels except ae, ǣ (= Germanic ē) and e, initial g and c do not change the following vowel (S. § 76); but initial sca- and sco- frequently become scea-, sceo-, e.g., scand, sceand, scǫnd, sceǫnd, shame; pret. scān, scēan, shone; Scottas, Sceottas, the Scots; scop, sceop, poet; scacan, sceacan, pret. scōc, scēoc, shake; pret. scōp, scēop, created.

Note 2.—The palatal pronunciation of medial c, cc, g, and cg, followed by a, o, or u, is often indicated by the insertion of an e (sometimes of an i). This inserted e (i) represents a trace of an original formative i or j. (S. § 206, 6.)

Thus, sēc(e)an (< *sōcian, S. § 45, 8; Goth, sōkjan), to seek; cwęcc(e)an (< *cwæcjan), to quake; męnig(e)o (< *manigī; Goth, managei), multitude; bycg(e)an (Goth, bugjan), to buy; sęcg(e)as, sęcg(e)a, secg(i)um, pi. of sęcg (stem *sægjo), man.

Note 3.—The inserted letter observed in the preceding note marks with prominence the “glide” effect of palatals. This element in the pronunciation leads to further variation in the written forms. Thus, for example, for ia ('ja) the graphic substitutes may be ga, iga, igea; for ie they may be ge, ige : nęrian, nęrgan, nęrigan, nęrigean, to save; hęjr(i)g(e)as, hęr(i)g(e)a, hęr(i)gum, pi. of hęre (stem *hærjo-), army; wundriende, wundrigende, wondering; winig(e)a, gen. pi. of wine (stem *wini-), friend.

Also as a graphic substitute for final ī,' some use is made of ig: bī-spell, big-spell, parable; hī, hig, pron.; sī, sig (Opt.), be; and medial īg is occasionally represented by igg: īgað, iggað, small island. (S. § 24, Note.)

Note 4.—It is also to be observed that initial *jae, *jo become gea, geo (gio). Thus, gēar (< *jǣr; Goth, jēr), year; geoc, gioc (< *joc; Goth, juk), yoke. In like manner initial *ju becomes geo, gio, or is represented by iu (io). Thus, geong, giong, iung (< *jung; Goth, juggs), young; gēo, gīo, īu, īo (Goth. ju), formerly. (S. § 74.)

GEMINATION BEFORE j.

11. A single consonant (except r) when preceded by a short vowel is geminated by a following j. The