Page:Bright's Anglo-Saxon Reader.djvu/23

From Wikisource
Jump to: navigation, search
This page has been proofread, but needs to be validated.
PHONOLOGY.xvii

vowel is also umlauted (13), and the j itself disappears. (S. § 228.)

Thus, cynn (stem *cunjo), kin; sęllan (< *sæljan; Goth, saljan), to give; lęcgan (< *lægjan; Goth, lagjan), to lay; hębban ('*hæfjan; Goth, hafjan), to heave; scieppan, 13 (< *sceapjan, 10 < *scæpjan; Goth, skapjan), to create; hliehhan (< *hleahjan, 9 < *hlæhjan; Goth, hlahjan), to laugh.

But r is not geminated: hęre (stem *hærjo; Goth. harjis), army; nęrian, 10, Note 3 (< *nærjan; Goth. nasjan), to save.

Note 1. — It will be noticed that geminated f and g become bb and cg respectively.

Note 2. — On the other hand, when the radical vowel or radical syllable is long, this formative j, first becoming i (S. § 45, 8), has not caused gemination of the preceding consonant.

Thus, sēc(e)an (<*sōcian), to seek; dēmail (<*dōmian), to judge; sęndan (<*sǫndian), to send.

FINAL DOUBLE CONSONANTS.

12. Double consonants (except cg) at the end of a word are usually simplified. (S. § 225.)

Thus, mǫnn, mǫn, man; męnn, męn, men; eall, eal, all; cynn, cyn, kin; będd, będ, bed; sibb, sib, peace. —  But, sęcg, man; hrycg, ridge; węcg, wedge.

UMLAUT (i-UMLAUT).

13. The accented vowels (radical vowels) are palatal- ized by an i or j of the following syllable. This species of palatalization is called i-umlaut, or, briefly, umlaut. The i and j causing the umlaut were, for the most part, either changed into e or entirely lost in an early period of the language. (S. § 85–100.)