Page:Bright's Anglo-Saxon Reader.djvu/24

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xviii
AN OUTLINE OF ANGLO-SAXON GRAMMAR.

The results of umlaut may be tabulated thus:

æ (<a. 7) becomes ę. (Sometimes æ. S. § 89, 1, Note 1.)
ǫ (<a. 8) becomes ę.
ā (< Germanic ai) becomes ǣ.
ǣ (< Germanic ē) remains ǣ.
o, ō become e, ē.
u, ū become y, ȳ.
ea, ēa \scriptstyle{

\left.

\begin{matrix}
\ \\ \\\ \ 
\end{matrix}

\right\}\, } become ie, īe; i, ī; in LWS usually y, ȳ (3, Note)
eo, ēo
io, īo

(a) Thus, æ into ę: hęre (< stem *hærjo), army; lęcgan (< *lægjan), to lay; sęllan (< *sæljan), to give; męte (stem *mæti), meat.

(b) ǫ into ę: dat. sg. męn(n) (< *mǫnni), nom. (acc.) pl. męn(n) (< *mǫnniz), man; ðęnc(e)an (< *ðǫncian), to think; węndan (< *wǫndian), to turn.

(c) ā and ǣ into ǣ: dǣl (stem *dāli; Goth. dails), portion; dǣlan (< *dālian; Goth. dailjan), to share; hǣlan (< *hālian; Goth. hailjan), to heal; dǣd (stem *dǣdi; Goth. -dēds), deed; lǣce (stem *lǣcio; Goth. lēkeis), leech.

(d) o, ō into e, ē: morgen (< *morgan). but mergen (< *morgin; Goth. maurgins), morrow; dat. sg. dehter (< *dohtri), daughter; dēman (< *dōmian), to judge; fēt, tēð, gēs, dat. sg. and nom. (acc.) pl. of fōt, foot, tōð (8, Note), tooth, gōs, goose.

Note.—The umlaut of o (short) is restricted by reason of the Germanic law according tu which o is changed into u before a following i or j. (S. § 45, 3.)