Caird, Edward (1835-1908). -- Philosopher, younger brother of John C. (q.v.), was b. at Greenock, and ed. at Glasgow and Oxf., where he became Fellow and Tutor of Merton Coll. In 1866 he was appointed to the Chair of Moral Philosophy at Glasgow, which he held until 1893, when he became Master of Balliol Coll., from which he retired in 1907. He has written Critical Philosophy of Kant (1877), Hegel (1883), Evolution of Religion, Social Philosophy and Religion of Comte (1885), Evolution of Theology in the Greek Philosophers (1904).
Caird, John (1820-1898). -- Theologian, b., at Greenock, and ed. at Glasgow, entered the Church of Scotland, of which he became one of the most eloquent preachers. After being a minister in the country and in Edinburgh, he was translated to Glasgow, becoming in 1862 Prof. of Divinity in the Univ. of that city, and in 1873 Principal. A sermon on Religion in Common Life, preached before Queen Victoria, made him known throughout the Protestant world. He wrote an Introduction to the Philosophy of Religion (1880), and a vol. on Spinoza (1888).
Calamy, Edmund (1600-1666). -- Puritan Divine, b. in London, and ed. at Camb., was one of the principal authors of a famous controversial work bearing the title Smectymnuus, made up of the initials of the various writers, and pub. in 1641 in reply to Bishop Hall's Divine Right of Episcopacy. His other chief work is The Godly Man's Ark. A Presbyterian, he was a supporter of monarchy, and favoured the Restoration, after which he was offered, but declined, the see of Coventry and Lichfield. He was a member of the Savoy Conference. The passing of the Act of Uniformity led to his retiring from ministerial work. He is said to have d. of melancholy caused by the great fire of London.
Calderwood, David (1575-1650). -- Scottish Church historian, belonged to a good family, and about 1604 became minister of Crailing, Roxburghshire. Opposing the designs of James VI. for setting up Episcopacy, he was imprisoned 1617, and afterwards had to betake himself to Holland, where his controversial work, Altare Damascenum, against Episcopacy, was pub. In 1625 he returned to Scotland, and began his great work, The Historie of the Kirk of Scotland, which was pub. in an abridged form (1646). The complete work was printed (1841-49) for the Woodrow Society. C. became minister of Pencaitland, East Lothian, about 1640, and was one of those appointed to draw up The Directory for Public Worship in Scotland.
Calverley, Charles Stuart (1831-1884). -- Poet and translator, s. of the Rev. H. Blayds (who assumed the name of Calverley), was ed. at Harrow, Oxf., and Camb. He was called to the Bar in 1865, and appeared to have a brilliant career before him, when a fall on the ice in 1866 changed him from a distinguished athlete to a life-long invalid. Brilliant as a scholar, a musician, and a talker, he is perhaps best known as one of the greatest of parodists. He pub. Verses and Translations (1862), and Fly-leaves (1872). He also translated Theocritus (1869).