Page:Cyclopaedia, Chambers - Supplement, Volume 1.djvu/762
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called the whole genus of the titmoufcs; but others have re- trained it only to one fpecies of them, which is the common larger kind, called by us the ox-eye. This is much larger than any of the oilier titmoufes, weighing near an ounce, whereas they feldom exceed three drains. Its head and the upper part of its throat are black, and from the angle of the mouth there runs a broad white ftreak. Its back, moulders and neck are of a greenifh yellow ; its breaft, belly and thighs yellow, but the farther part of the belly toward the tail, is white. The tail is moderately long, and variegated with blue, black and grey. Ray*s Ornithol. p. 174.
Fjungillago Americana asrulea, in zoology, a name given by Mr. Ray to the American titmoufe, otherwife known by its Brafilian name guiracenoia.
FRINGILLARIUS accipiter, in zoology, the name of a fpecies of hawk, of the fhort-winged kind, called by fome fiifus, and in Englifh the fparrow hawk. It is nearly of the fize of the common pigeon. Its beak is fhort and crooked, blue at the end, and blackifh at the point ; near the head it is covered with a greenifh yellow membrane. Its tongue is thick and black, and is a little bifid. Its head is of a brown- ifh colour, but over the eyes and behind, variegated with white feathers. The neck, back and wings are all of the fame brown, but fome few of the wing- feathers which are rear the back, are fpotted with white ; its breaft and belly are variegated with brown and white; its chin and thighs are white ; its wings are fo fhort, that when folded they do not reach more than to the middle of the tail ; its legs are long, flender and yellow. It lays five eggs, which are white, but have at their larger end a circle of red fpots. It is a very bold and lively bird, and will not, as many other fpecies do, eat beetles, worms, Sec. but leeds only on birds. Ray's Orni- thol. p. 51.
FRISONE, in zoology, a name by which many call the coc- cothrauftes or grois beak, called alio in Englifh, the hawfinch. Ray's Ornithol. p. 178. See Coccothraustes.
FRIST, a term among merchants for felling goods upon cre- dit.
FRIT, in glafs making, the calcined matter to be run into glafs. To make this for cryftal glafs, take of the fineft tarfo, pow- dered fine and fifted, two hundred pound, of the fait of pol- vorine an hundred and thirty pound, mix them well together, and put them into the calcar, or calcining furnace, which mull be thoroughly heated firft, otherwife the operation will be very difficult ; a moderate fire is to be kept up for an hour, and the matter continually ftirred together with a rake, and then the fire muff be made very violent, and kept up for five hours. After this, take it out and cover it from duft, it will be white as fnow. It muft be kept in this ftate, three or four months, and is then ready to make the fineft cryftal glafs. Nens Art of glafs, p. 8.
FRITH. See Fryth, Cycl
FRITILLARIA, in botany, the name of a genus of plants, the chaia&ers of which are thefe: the flower is of the liliace- ous kind, and is bell fafbioned and pendulous. It iscompofed of fix leaves, and has in the middle a piftil, which finally be- comes a fruit divided into three cells, and containing many flat feeds, lying in double rows on one another. To this it is to be added, that the root is compofed of two bulbs, the one of which lies by the fide of the other, thefe are ufually of a globular form, and the ftalk arifes from between them. The fpecies of ft -iiillary >, enumerated by Mr. Tournefort, are thefe. 1. The early purple validated fritillary. 2. The sreat purple Italian _/W////izry. 3. The great yellow Italian friitllary. 4. The purple branched fritillary. 5. The greenifh yellow many flowered fritillary. 6. The umbelliferous fritillary. y. The great fritillary, with dusky purple flowers. 8. The branched fritillary, called the letter Perfian lilly. 9. The white many flowered fritillary. 10. The bright yellow flow- ered fritillary. 11, The late double fritillary, with greenifh yellow flowers. 12. The tall Spanifh fritillary, with pale red flowers. 13. The black flowered fritillary, 14. The Ifabella fritillary, with greenifh red flowers. 15. The fritil- lary, with a dusky purple fulcated angular flower. 16. The fritillary, with very large double flowers. 17. The white variegated teiiellated fritillary. 18. The early white fritillary. 19. The late fritillary, with blackifh purple flowers. 20. The late fritillary, with yellowifh green flowers. 21. The yellow fritillary, with red fpots. 22. The narrow leaved yel- low variegated fritillary, with large flowers. 23. The nar- row leaved yellow variegated fritillary, with final 1 flowers. 24. The Pyrenean fmail flowered fritillary, and 25. The fmalleft many leaved fritillary. Tourn. Inft. p. 377, Befides the many diftinft fpecies of this beautiful plant ; there are vaft varieties in the colours of the flower, in the plants carefully propagated from feeds. They are by fome propagat- ed by roots, but the method by feeds is greatly preferable, as it produces much the greater number of roots, as well as the better flowers.
The feeds for this mould be faved from the fineft flowers, and fown on fome light; frefh earth in flat mallow pans, or boxes
with holes at the bottom, kept open by tile-fhreds to let out the moifture. The feeds muft be fown pretty thick and covered with a quarter of an inch of earth : this is to be done in the beginning of Auguft. The pans or boxes are then to be fet in a place where they may have the morning's fun, till about eleven o'clock, and if the feafon proves dry, they muft be watered, and always carefully kept clear of weeds. Milkr\ Gard. Di&
Toward the latter end of September the boxes muft be re- moved into a warmer lituation, and placed under fheker of a hedge or under a fouth wall, and they are here to remain till the middle of March, by which time the plants will be come up an inch high. They are now to be removed into a ihadv fi- tuation, and are to remain there the whole fummer. About the beginning of Auguft, a bed of frtih earth is to be prepared, on which the earth of the pans and boxes contain- ing the roots of the plants is to be ftrewed, after their leaves are all dead : this is to. be covered half an inch thick with fine frefh earth evenly fifted on, and in this ftate they are to remain till they flower, which is generally the third year from the fowing. When they are in flower, the fined kinds fbould be marked with fticks, and their roots planted out into fepa- rate beds. Millar's Gard. Diift.
As foon as the leaves are decayed they fhould be carefully weeded, and thin offsets taken up and tranfplanted.
FROG, in zoology. See Rana.
Generation of 'Frogs. This was very nicely inquired into, by the fagacious Lewenhoek. He found'by repeated obfervations, that the male in copulation only fits upon the female, net being joined to her, nor having any apparent penis. At the time that the female frog drops her fpawn, the malealfo throws out his femen, which is to be placed under the eggs, as the femen of fifties that want the penis is call under the eggs or fpawn of their females, that the animalcules in it, may impregnate the eggs. The animalcule in the male feed, has its way to make into a certain point of the egg of the female, elfe that egg is unfruitful ; and this is the reafbn why the animalcules in the male femen are fo prodigioufly more numerous, than the eggs in the female, becaufe vaft multitudes of them muft neceffari- ly be loft. The tefticles and vafa deferentia of frogs, are ve- ry evident to any one ufed to anatomical inquiries on open- ing the creature ; and thefe contain vaft numbers of very vi- gorous animalcules at the time when the creature is to pro- duce its young, which is in April, but at other times, they are not fo numerous or lively.
This creature bears the experiments of the air pump, better than moil other animals. It will breathe fome time after the extraflion of the air, but at length the Vifible motion of the throat will ceafe, and the body fwell a little. After three hours lying in this condition, when no farther fign of life ap- pears, if the animal be placed in the open air, a few hours will recover it to its former life and vigour. The fame ani- mal put into a receiver exhaufted of the air, but nearly filled with water, will live many hours under the water, and feem to refpire, but in five or fix hours it will die. The larger and Iufticr frogs live longer than the young ones in the receiver. Phil. Tranf. N'. 62.
Frog micrtfcopically examined. — The frog affords the curious in microicopic obfervations, a very beautiful view of the circu- lation of the blood ; but the method of examining it to advan- tage was never hit upon, till the contrivance of the late inge- nious Dr. Stuart for that purpofe. This he did by the folar microfcope in the following manner. The looking glafs, tube, and convex lens are the fame in this, as in the common folar microfcope, but inftead of the little pocket microfcope of Wilfon, he ufed the belly part of the common large rcfleft- ing one, fixed horizontally on a pedeftal, juft at an equal height with the tube. This (lands on a little fhelf made to fupport it; and to its fnout, which lies on a level with the tube, the magnifiers are fcrewed; the object being extended and' faftend with firings and pins on a frame contrived for that purpofe, is applied between the tube and the majnifier, where- by the fun's rays reffefled from the looking glafs, thro' the tube, upon the objeft, pafs on thro' the magnifier, and ex- hibit upon the fcreen an image of the objea moll prodigi- oufly enlarged. Baier'i Microf. p. 132. To view ifrcg with this apparatus, the skin of the belly is to be opened from near the anus to thethroar,aiidthengivingit ahttle fnip fide ways both at the top and bottom, and flicking a fifh- hook into each corner of the skin, it was eafily extended be- fore the microfcope, and fhewed on the fcreen the mofi beautiful view imaginable of the veins and arteries of the skin with the blood circulating thro' them. In the arteries thus viewed, the blood is feen to flop, and recede a little at evciy pulfation by the dilatation, and rufh forcibly on again, by the contraction of the heart; while in the veins- it ever kept the fame equable and uniform current, with a furprifmg rapidity ; and when the fcreen was removed farther back, and the ob- jea by that means more enlarged ; the alternate expanfion and contraction of the fides of the arteries was very vifible. After this, the abdomen of the frog being, opened, and Che