Page:Cyclopaedia, Chambers - Supplement, Volume 2.djvu/516
The teeth in the jaws refcmble the dentes canini of men. The molares, or grinders, are like thofe of quadrupeds. The teeth are placed only in the jaws and fauces, their palate and tongue being fmooth. There is but one hack fin. The eyes are covered with a lax flcin, and the tail in moft of the fpecies is forked. The inteftines are long, and they are twifted in fpiral forms, and often fixed to the mcfentery. The appendices to the pylorus are large, and few in num- ber, from three to feven being the ufual numbers. Of the /pari fome have acute and cylindric teeth ; of thefe the following are the fpecies of them. i. The fparus with a very acute back, and an arched yellow fpire between the eyes. This is the aurata, or gilt-head. ?. The filver- eyed fparus with yellow parallel longitudinal lines on each fide* 3. The red fparus with filver eyes. This is the ru~ bellio of authors. 4. The reddifti fparus with the fkin formed into a finus at the root of the back fin and the pinna ani. This is called the brama marina, or fea-bream. The tail is Forked, and the mouth has gramilous tubercles in it. 5. The Variegated fparus with an acute back, and with four large teeth. This is the deniex and fynodon of authors. 6. The fparus with four longitudinal parallel lines, of a golden and ill very colour. This is the hoops of authors. 7. The varie- gated fparus with a black fpot in the middle of each fide, and with four large teeth. This is the mana of authors. 8. The fparus with a black fpot on each fide, and with the pectoral fins and the tail red. 9. The fparus with the upper jaw longeft, and with two tranfverfe black lines on each fide. 10. The fparus with the fecond bone of the belly fins extended into a long hair. This is the chromis of authors. II. The variegated fparus with an equal tail, and a black fpot in it near the end. This is the orpbus of authors. Its head is reddifh. 12. The y<z\\(yw\fa. fparus with a fingle an- nular fpot in the tail. This is the fparus of authors, Ar- tedi only having ufed the name in this extenfive generical fenfe. 13. The fparus variegated with yellow tranfverfe lines, with a large and remarkable fpot at the tail. This is the fargus of authors. 14. The fparus variegated with lon- gitudinal lines, with a black fpot on each fide of the tail. This is the melanurus of authors. 15. The fparus with eleven lines on each fide, which are gold coloured, and run longitudinally and parallel to one another. This is the falpa of authors. Thus have the feveral fifties, which are only fo many fpecies of the fame natural genus, been treat- ed of under almoft as many generical names, to' the great confufion of thofe who apply to this ftudy. Artedi, Gen. Pifc. p. 28.
The fparus is common in the Adriatic, and fome other fcas, and efteemed a very delicate filh. Aldrovand, de Pifc. lib. 2. cap. 18. Gefner, Paralip. p. I05p\
The name fparus is of Greek origin, being derived from the verb avct^tu t to palpitate, or tremble j and was given to this filh from its remarkable quality of trembling or pal- pitating all over the body, as -foon as taken put of the water.
Sparus, among the Romans, a kind of ruftic weapon, bent backwards like the foot. It was likewife ufed for a fmall dart, or miflive weapon. Pitifc. in voc.
SPASM (CycU) — A fpafm may be either univerfal, extending itfelf over the whole body, which is a very rare cafe ; or partial, occupying only fome one part of the body: thefe are very frequent, and feize at times on every part, from the head to the foot.
Ofthe nature of the univerfal fpafms are, 1. the tetanus, which feizes upon the whole body, and makes it ftiff and rigid in every part. 2. The empro/fhotonos, which bends the body forwards, fo that the head is brought to meet the knees. 3. The opijihotonos ; this enclincs the whole body forcibly backwards. And 4. the catalepfis, which feizes the whole fyftem in a moment, and fixes it rigidly and unalte- rably in that pofture in which it finds it ; fo that the pofiti- on of every limb, and the very turn of the countenance, and look of the eyes, is the fame as when the patient was feized. This is a very rare cafe.
To the clafs of particular and partial fpafms belong 1. many of the arthritic complaints. 2. The incubus, or nightmare, which is a fpafm of the breaft. 3. The convulfive ajlhma. 4. The cynic fpafm, which is a peculiar diftortion of the face, refembling that of a perfon while laughing. This en- dures ufually many hours, and is often of very fatal confe- quence, frequently terminating in an apoplexy, or in the moft terrible convulfions. 5. The fardonic laugh, which only differs from the former in that it is attended with an abfolute delirium, which is not the cafe in the other. 6. The priapifm, which is an involuntary and painful erection of the penis. 7. The fpaftic contraction of the colon in fla- tulent colics. 8. The fixt fpafms of Paracelfus, which the author defcribes as often afflicting podagric and arthritic pa- tients. Junker's Confp. Med. p. 608.
Spafms in general, befide thefe diftinctions, are divided by authors into the fudden, or inftantaneous, which feize upon any mufcle in a moment, and keep it for a confiderable time in a painful ftate of contraction, and the flow ones. The Jloiv fpafm are alfo divided into two kinds. 1. The
mufcular and tendinous. And 2. the fibrillary. In the firft of thefe the whole mufcle is affected with tenfive pains, and the limb becomes finally contracted. In the other, the fe- parate fibres in the mufcle are only affected. This is ufu- ally the cafe in fpafms in arthritic cafes, which feize a few fibres only at firft, but finally faften upon more, and extend themfelves over the whole mufcle, in which cafe the pain ufually becomes lefs. A tenfive pain in the neck, occafi- oned by fitting or lying in an uneafy poflrure, ufually called a crick in the neck, is alfo to be enumerated among the par- tial fpafms ; and finally, thefe affections are not reftrained wholly to the external parts, but often feize alfo upon the internal, as the cefophagus, the ftomach, the bladder, &c. It is a common error to confound the word fpafm with cen- vulfion't their difference is evident, the one being ftationary and immoveable, the other erratic, and flying from one part of a mufcle to another, and from one mufcle to an- other ; the convulfion alfo ufually extends itfelf farther than the fpafm, and is greater in degree ; and finally, the fpafm is a much lefs dangerous complaint than the convulfion. Men are more fubject to fpafms in general than women, and among them, fuch as are of a fanguine and plethoric-ha- bit, are moft of all fubject to them. The general caufe of fpafms is an abundance of blood in a body where the veffels are fmall, and nature is endeavouring to throw off the load of the plethora from veffels, where it is troublefome to her, by this means ; which, though an erroneous one, is therefore not without its end. Prognojiics in Spasms. The univerfal fpafms are greatly the moft dangerous, as they are frequently attended with inter- nal inflammations ; and the partial fpafms too often degene- rate into convulfions. If fpafms are very frequent in young people, they are to be fufpectcd of threatening arthritic com- plaints in old age ; and when perfons have been free from fpafms in their youth, and become fubject to them when old, it is much to be feared that they portend apoplexies, palfies, and fuffocative catarrhs : and in' general all fpafms^ as they are in reality no other than the incomplete attempts of nature to free herfelf of fomewhat that offends her in par- ticular parts, portend fome worfe mifchief, when they are obferved to return frequently, and with violence. Spafms happening in acute difeafes, and from wounds, are all very dangerous fymptoms, and threaten convulfions, and other mifchiefs. Method of cure. The means to be ufed, when, the fits are off, are bleeding in any manner, by the lancet, by leeches, or by cupping, as may be moft proper in regard to the part principally affected, and other circumftances ', after this the prima vim are to be cleared by purges from any foulneffes that may adhere to them; and finally, fuch medicines are to be given, as are known to attenuate the 1 blood ; and with all this, gentle exercife is of great fervice. In the time of the fit, lenient and paregoric medicines of this kind arc amber, and the fpirit of hartfhorn : to thefe .are to be added the acrid vegetables, fuch as the more temperate carmina- tives, and the emulfive diluent medicines, with nitre and cinnabar. This laft drug is famous alone in all thefe cafes, and indeed in all emotions of the blood ; but neither this, nor any of the others, will take effect till after bleeding, if the fpafm be violent. The volatile alkalis alfo fucceed beft when mixed with a fixed one ; fuch as the fpirit of hartfhorn with the tincture of fait of tartar, or of antimony. Junker's Confp. Med. p. 612. See Convulsion, Appendix. SPATAGOIDES, in natural hiftory, the name of a genus of the echini marini, the characters of which are; that it has the aperture for the anus on one fide of the upper fur- face, and has a large furrow on the back, which makes it of a cordated form ; but has no furrows on the vertex, but only four or five fmooth rays, made of a number of flight tranfverfe ftrias. See Tab. of Teftaccous Animals, N" 14. SPATANGI, in natural hiftory, the name of a genus of the echini marini, including all thofe which are marked in the fhape of a heart, and have the aperture for the anus in one of the fides of the upper fuperficies. Thefe have all a re- markable furrow on the back ; their bafe is nearly flat, and they have feveral furrows on the vertex. By thefe charac- ters they are diftinguifhed from the brifli, with which they have in common the marks of two lips to their mouth, and want the teeth the other kinds have. See Tab. of Teftace- ous Animals, N° 11. Klein's Echin. p. 35. SPATHA, is a word ufed by different authors in various fenfes ; fome exprefs by it a rib ; others the inftrument called by furgeons a fpatula, and ufed for fpreading ointments and plafters ; and Celfus calls a fort of incifion-knife by this name. It is alfo ufed for the external covering of the fruit of tiie palm-tree, and by others for a fword. This laft is indeed its proper fignification, and all the others are only metapho- rical applications of it to different things, which bear fome refemblance to a fword. Spatha, among botanifts, expreffes that fort of cup which confifts of a fimple membrane growing from the ftalk. This kind of cup is of various figures ; often diphylious, or di- vided into two parts ; often fimple ;■ fometimes more divid- ed: it indoles fometimes a fingle flower, fometimes feveral