" not the Eircct of this or that Motion or Collifion of Ni " tural Bodies, but the Sign thereof. The Cartefians own " fomewhat like this : The Action of 'Bodies on our " Organs, fay they, is not the Efficient Caufc of our " Ideas and Perceptions, but only the Occafional Caufe, " which determines God to aft on the Mind, according to
- l the Laws of the Union of the Soul ancl Body. Sec
" Cause.. Mr. Berkeley, indeed, taking away Bodies, takes " away what thefe Philofophers account the Occafions of " their Ideas : By an Occafion, he fays, muft either be " meant the Agent that produces an Effect, or fomething u oblerv'd to accompany or go before it, in the ordinary " Courfe of Things : But Matter is allow'd to be pafiive " and inert, and can't therefore be an Agent or Efficient " Caufe ; and this Matter primitively and in it felf, is al- " low'd imperceivable, and devoid of all particular fenfi- u ble Qualities ; i. e. it has not this or that particular " Colour, this or that particular Figure, &c. but has Co-
- ' lour in the General, Figure in the Abftract, ££?c. but an
" Abitract is no Object of Senfe : Matter therefore can't " be the Occafion of our Ideas in the latter Senfe."
How far the great Argument of the Maintainers of a material World, from the Imfojfibility of God's deceiving us, and from the Evidence that be does fo, if there be no jhch thing, will go againft this Rcafoning, we leave to the Reader. See Extern .\hIVorld.
For the Colours of Bodies : Sir Ifaac Newton /hews, that Bodies appear of this or that Colour, as they are difpos'd to reflect moft copioufly the Rays of Light originally endu'd with thofe Colours. See Light and Colour. But thepar- ticular ConlHtutions whereby they reflect fome Rays more copioufly than others, remain yet to be difcover'd. How- ever, fome of the Laws and Circumftances thereof, he deli- vers in the following L Propofitions.
i. Thofe Surfaces of tranlparent Bodies, reflect the great- eft Quantity of Light, which have the greateft Refracting Power ; i.e. which intercede Mediums, that differ moft in their refractive Denlitics : And in the Confines of equally refracting Mediums-, there is no Reflexion, 2. The leaft Parts of atmoft all Natural Bodies, are in fome meafure trans- parent; and the Opacity of thofe Bodies, arifes from the mul- titude of Reflexions caus'din their internal Parts. See Opa- city, &c. 3. Between the Parts of Opake and Colour'd Bo- dies, are many Spaces, either empty, or replete with Medi- ums of different Denflties 5 as Water between the tinging Cor- pufcles, wherewith a Liquor is impregnated 5 Air between the aqueous Globules, that conftitute Clouds or Mifts : and even Spaces, void both of Air and Water, between the Parts of hard Bodies, are not yet perhaps wholly void of all Subftance. See Medium. 4. The Parts of the Bodies, and their Interfaces, muft be lefs than of fome definite Bignefs, to render them opake and colour'd. 5. The tran- fparent Parts of Bodies, according to their feveral Sizes, reflect Rays of one Colour, and tranfmit thofe of another, on the fame Grounds that thin Plates or Bubbles do reflect, or tranfmit thofe Rays : And this appears to be the Ground of all their Colour. See Colour. 6. The Parts of Bodies, on which their Colours depend, are denfer than the Medium which pervades their Interftkes. 7. The Bignefs of the component Parts of Natural Bodies, may be conjec- tur'd from their Colours 5 on this Principle, that tranf- parent Corpufcles, of the fame Thicknefs and Denfity with a Plate, do exhibit the fame Colour. 8. The Caufe of Reflexion, is not the impinging of Light on the iblid or impervious Parts of Bodies, as commonly be- liev'd. See Reflexion. 9. Bodies reflect and refract ■ Light, by one and the fame Power varioufly exercis'd, in various Circumftances. See Refraction - y lee alfo Light, Ray, &c.
Bodies, are diftinguifh'd into Animate and Inanimate ; i.e. into thofe inform 'd by a Soul, and thofe which are not 5 or thofe that have Life, and thofe that have none.
Some confider Bodies, either as Natural and Senfible ; viz. as form'd by Phyfical Caufes, and cloth'd with Phy- fical Qualities : (In which Senfe, Body makes the Object utThyficks.) See Physicks. Or, as Intellectual or Quan- titative, in the General or Abftract - 7 and according to* the three Dimenfions : In which Senfe, Body makes the Sub- ject of Geometry. See Geometry,
Body, with regard to Animals, is us'd in opposition to ( he Soul j viz. for that Part compos'd of Bones, Mufcles, Canals, Juices, Nerves,^. In which Senfe, Body makes the Subject of Anatomy. See Anatomy.
'The human Body, confider'd with regard to the various Y°luntary Motions it is capable of performing, is an Af- 'embiage of an infinite Number of Levers, drawn by Cords: If confider'd with regard to the Motions of the Fluids it contains, 'tis another Affemblage of an Infinity of Tubes and hydtaulick Machines. Lallly, If confider'd with re- gard to the Generation of thofe fame Fluids, 'tis another infinite Afiemblage of Chymical Inflruments and Veffels ; as Philters, Alembics, Recipients, Serpentines, &c. and
the whole is a Compound which we can only adrriire; aha whereof the greateft Part efcapes our Admiration itfclf; The principal Chymical Apparatus in the whole Body; is that wonderful Laboratory the Brain : 'Tis in this* that pre- cious Extract, cail'd Animal Spirit tfj the only material Mo- vers of the whole Fabrick, is fecreted from the Blood; Sea Brain, Spirits, Blood, Heart, &c.
In the Machine of the Animal Body, the Retainers to the Doctrine of trituration maintain the Brain to do the Office of the Beam of a Prefs, the Heart of a Tijlon, the Lungs of Bellows, the Mouth of a Millfione, and the "teeth of 'Peftles ; the Stomach of a <Prefs, the Intejiines of a Refer-voir, the Vcffels of Sieves or Strainers, and the Air of a Tondus, or Spring that fets the Machine a going. S^e Trituration.
The Soul, Rohault well obferves, is not the Form of the Human Body : So far is the Animal Life from depend- ing on the Soul, becaufe of its ceafing when the Soul is feparated ; that on the contrary, the Continuance of the Soul depends entirely on the Difpofition of the Body : the former never quitting the latter, till its Oeconomy or Order is interrupted. The Cartefians maintain the Soul and Body to be too difproportionate,for Thoughts or Ideas of the Soul to be caus'd by the Motions of Bodies, and vice verfa: Thus, their reciprocal Motions not being able to be the direct Caufe of the one and the other, are only deem'd the Occafion, oroccafional Caufc. God, on occafion of the Motion of a Body, impreffes an Idea orSenlationon the Soul, and again, on oc- cafion of an Idea of the Soul, communicates a Motion to the Body: of confequence, God is, as it were, the Mediator of all the Commerce between Soul and Body. See Cause.
Phyficians divide the Body into three Venters, or Cavi- ties, the Head, thorax, and lower Venter ; which fee : The reft of the Body they call Members. See Parts.
Body, Corpus, is alfo apply'd by Anatomifts to feveral particular Parts of the Animal Fabrick : As the Callous Bo- dy of the Brain ; the Cavernous or Spongeous Bodies of the Penis, &c. See Corpus Callofum, Corpora Cavernofa, 8cc* Body in Geometry. The Regular or '.Rlatonick Bodies, are thofe whofe Sides and Angles are equal 5 of thefe there are only Five, viz. The Tetrahedron, confifting of four Angles ; the OEtahedron of eight 5 the Icofihedron of twenty; the 'Dodacahcdron of twelve Pentagons ■-, and the Cube of fix Squares. See Regular Body.
Body in Law. A Man is faid to be bound, or held, in Body and Goods ; that is, he is liable to remain in Prifon* in default of Payment. In France, by an Ordonnance of itf(?7, all Reftraints of Body, for Civil Debts, are null after, four Months, unlefs they exceed 200 Livres. A Woman, tho in other Refpects fhe cannot engage her Perfon but to her Husband, may be taken by the "Body, when fhe carries on a feparate Trade.
Body in War, is an Affemblage or Collection of For- ces, Horfe and Foot, united and marching under fome Chief. An Army, rang'd in Form of Battle, is divided into three Bodies ; the Yant-Guard, the Rear-Guard, and the Main Body j which latt is ordinarily the General's Poft. See Corps. BOGOMILES or BOGARMITES, % Sect of Here- ticks, fprung from the Manichees, or rather the Taulitians in the 1 2th Century. The Chief hereof, Bafi^ was burnt, by Order of the Emperor Alexander Commemits. They denied the Trinity; maintain'd, that God had a human Form, that the World was created by evil Angels, and that it was the Archangel Gabriel that became incarnate. They rejected the Books of Mofes, and Only admitted feven Books of Scripture : Thcymaintain'd the Lord's Prayer to be the only Eucharift; that the Baptifm of the Catholicks was that of St. jfohn, and theirs thatof jfefiisChriJl- 7 and that all thofe of their Sect conceiv'd the Word, or Legos, as much as the Virgin. Laftly, That there was no other Reiurrection but Repentance. 1)u Cange derives the Name from two Words in the Bulgarian Language, Bog, deus, and MtU&i miferere, have Mercy.
BOILING, Ebullition, in Phyficks, the Agitation of a fluid Body, anting from the Application of Fire, ££?c. The Phenomenon of Boili?ig may be thus accounted for : The minute Particles of the Fuel being detach'd from each other, and impell'd in Orlem, With a great Velocity, (i. e. being converted into Fire) pafs the Pores of the containing Veffei, and mix with the Liquid. By the Refiflance they here meet withal, their Motion is deftroy'd 5 i.e. they communi- cate it wholly to the quiefcen; Water; hence arifes, at firft, a fmall inteftine Motion in the Water, and from the conti- nued Action of thefirft Caufe, the Effect: is increas'd,andthe Motion of the Water continually accelerated : So that the Water, by degrees, becomes fenfibly agitated. But, now, the Particles of the Fircftriking on thofe in the lo we ft Surface of the Water, will not only give 'em an Impulfe upwards, contrary to the Laws of ^Equilibrium, but will likewife ren- der 'em.fpecifkally lighter than before, fo as to determine 'em to afcend according to the Laws of Equilibrium : And this, either by inflating 'em into little Veiicles, by the G g Attraction