Page:Cyclopaedia, Chambers - Volume 1.djvu/387
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We fay, Derogatory Cimifi, 'Penal Claufe, Codicillary Claufe, Refoliuary Clallfe. See each of thefe in its Place, Derogatory, Penal, i£c.
CLAUSUM Fregit, an Action of Trefpafs ; thus call'd, by reafon the Wfit demands the Perfon fuminon'd to anfwer to quart ckmfum fregit, why he committed fuch a Trefpafs. See Trespass.
CLAVUS, in Antiquity, a Band or Fillet of Putple, mote or lefs broad, according to the Dignity of the Perfon ; us'd
among the antient Romans : whence the Difference of the Tunica Augujliclavia, and Laticlavia. Sec Laticlavus, &c.
This Ornament, according to fome, was call'd Clavus, Nail ; as being fet with little round Plates of Gold, or Silver, like the Heads of Nails. Cantelius maintains, that the Clavus confuted of a kind of Purple Flowers, fewed upon the Stuff.
Glavus, in Medicine, a Name Phyficians give to a Ihooting Pain in the Head, commonly fituate a little above the Eyes, viz. on the Sinus Frontalis; and fuppos'd to re' iemble a boring of the Head thro' with an Augre ; whence the Name, In fome 'tis only in one, and in others in both.
'Tis generally allow'd to be a Species of an Ague, or an intermitting Fever 5 its Periods of coming or going, being ufually regular or ftated. In fome 'tis Quotidian, in others Tertian. See Fever.
The Cure confifls in giving an Emetic a little before the Fit, and after, confirming it with a proper Quantity of the Cortex, iSc. as in intermitting Fevers : tho Bleeding and Diaphoretics fometimes effba a Cure without other Affiftants.
A Pain like to this, on the top of the Head, fometimes attacks hyitcrical Perfons ; which by Dr. Sydenham is term'd Clavus Hyfiericus. See Hysteric.
Clavus is alfo us'd in Medicine, for a Callus form'd on the Toes; popularly call'd a Corn. See Callos.
Clavi arife from a too great Compreffion of the Cutis ; which by this means hardens, and forms it felf into a Knot. The Cure is by full foftening 'em, as with Emplaft. de Ranis cum Mercuric, or Mynficbt. Galban. Crecat. with Sal Am- moniac 5 and then plucking 'em up. A piece of raw Beef, apply'd in manner of a Plaiftcr, and frequently (Tufted, is found to diffipate 'em in a little time.
CLAY, in Natural Hiftory. various Places, and us'd for various and Properties. See Earth, Soil, £S>c.
Dr. Zijlcr, in the Rbilofophical Tranfatiions, gives us a Table of 22 feveral Clays found in the feveral Counties of England ; five whereof he calls pure, i. e. fuch as are foft, like Butter, to the Teeth, with little or no Grittinefs in 'em, via. 1. Fullers Earth, which he diflinguifhes by its Colour into yellowifh, brown, and white. See Fullers Earth.
2. Soles. See Bole.
5. 'Rale yellow Clay. 4. Cowfhot Clay. 5. Dark Hue Clay, or Marie.
Seventeen impure ; whereof eight are harfh and dufly when dry : as, 1, Creta, or milk-white Clay. 2. Totters pale yello'si Clay. 3. Slue 'Rotters Clay. 4. Sine Clay, wherein is found the Aflroites. 5. Tellow Clay. 6. Fine red Clay. 7. Soft chalky blue Clay. 8. Soft chalky red Clay.
Three are ftony when dry, viz. 1. A red ftony Clay. 2. *A blue ftony Clay. 2. A white ftony Clay.
Three are mix'd with Sand, or Pebbles, viz. 1. a yellow Loam. z. A red fandy Clay. 3. A fecond Species of the fame Kind.
Laftly, three arc mix'd with flat or thin Sand, glittering with Mica : viz. 1. Crouch white Clay. z. Grey or bluifh Tbacco pipe Clay. 3. A red Clay.
CLAYES, in Fortification, are Wattles made with Stakes, interwove with Osiers, &c. to cover Lodgments. See Fas- cines.
CLAYING of Land. See Manure.
CLEAR, in Building, is fometimes us'd among the Work- men tor the infidc Work of a Houfe, &c. See House, i$c.
CLEARING of Liquors. See Clarification.
For Malt Liquors, particularly Beer, there are various Methods ot clearing ; the beft is by catling into it fix'd Ni- tre : lome add the Quinteffence of Malt and Wine ; whites ofEggs made into Balls w i,h a little Flower and Izing-glafs : Oil and Quinteffence of Barley have the fame Effeft. It is exceedingly clear' d and ftrcngthen'd, by adding to it, di
the Crofs Clech, and call it by the Name Vuid', voided. The thing that denominates it Clecbl, is its fpreading from the Centre towards the Extremities, which are very wide, and end in an Angle in the middle; as in the Figure ad- joining.
The Word is French, fuppos'd to be form'd of Clef, Key ; the Ends of the Crofs being thought to bear fome refem- blance to the Bowls of the antient Keys.
CLEDONISM, CLEDON1SMUS, a kind of Divination in ufe among the Antients. See Divination.
The Word is form'd from the Greek Mxfh» t which figni- fies two things, Rumor, a Report, and Avis, a Bird : In the fir!! Senfe, Cledonifm is a kind of Divination drawn from Words occafionally utter'd. Cicero obferves, that the Py- thagoreans made Observation not only of the Words of the Gods, but of thofe of Men; and accordingly belicv'd the pronouncing of certain Words, v.g. the Word Incendium, at a Meal, very unhappy.
Thus, inftead of Prifon, they us'd the Word 'Somicilium j and to avoid Erinnies, laid Eumenides.
In the fecond Senfe, Cledonifm fliouid feem a Divination drawn from Birds; the fame With Ornilhcmantia. See Or-
CLEF, CLIFF, or Key, in Mufick, a Mark at the Be- ginning of the Lines of a Song, which (hews the Tone, or Key in which the Piece is to begin. Or, it is a Letter mark'd on any Line, which explains and gives the Name to all the reft. See Key.
Antiently, every Line hid a Letter mark'd for a Clef ; now a Letter on one Line fuffices : fince by this all the reft are known ; reckoning up or down in the Older of the Letters.
'Tis call'd the Clef, or Key, becaufe hereby we know the Names of all the other Lines and Spaces ; and conle- quently the Quantity of every Degree, or Interval.
But becaufe every Note in the Octave is call'd a Key, tho in another Senfe, this Letter mark'd, is call'd in a parti- cular manner the Sign'd Clef ; becaufe being written on any Line, it not only figns and marks that one, but explains all the tell.
By Clef, therefore, for diftinction-fake, we mean that iott vilcous Earth, found in Letter fign'd on a Line, which explains the reft ; and by Key i Furpofes, of feveral Kinds the principal Note of a Song, in which the Melody clofes.
There are three of thefe Sign'd Clefs, c, f, g. The Clef of the higheft Part in a Song, call'd Treble, or Alt, is g fet on the fecond Line counting upwards. The C/f/ofthe Bafs, or the loweft Parr, is/ on the fbutth Line upwards : For all the other mean Parts, the Clef is c, fometimes on one, fome- times on another Line. Indeed, fome that are really mean Parts, are fometimes fet with the g Clef '. See Bass, £S?c.
It mull, however, be obferv'd, that the ordinary Signa- tures of Clefs bear little refemblance to thofe Letters* Mr* Malcolm thinks it would be well if we us'd the Letters themfelvcs. Kepler takes a world of Pains, to fhew that the common Signatures are only Corruptions of the Let- ters they reprefent. See their Figure among the other Ch a-
RACTERS Of Mufick .
The Clefs are always taken Fifths to one another : That is, the Clef f is loweft, c a Fifth above it, and g a Fifth above c.
When the Place of the Clef is chang'd, which is not fre- quent in the mean Clef, 'tis with Defign to make the Syftem
comprehend as many Notes of the Song as poflible, and fo to have the fewer Notes above or below it. If then there be many Lines above the Clef, and few below it, this Pur- pofe is anfwer'd by placing the Clef in the firft or fecond Line : If there be many Notes below the Clef, 'tis plac'd higher in the Syftem. In effect, according to the Relation of the other Notes to the Clef Note, the particular Syftem is taken differently in the Scale ; the Clef Line making one in all the Variety. See Scale.
But ftill, in whatever Line of the particular Syftem any Clef is found, it muft be undetftood to belong to the fame of the general Syftem, and to be the fame individual Note or Sound in the Scale.
By this conftant Relation of Clefs, we learn how to com- pare the feveral particular Syftems of the feveral Parts ; and know how they communicate in the Scale, i. e. which Lines are TJnifon, and which not : for 'tis not to be fuppos'd that
e- time of its Fermentation, iorne ardent Spirit. See each Part has certain Bounds, within which another muft
Malt, Lio^ijor, Beer, £??<;.
CLECHE', or CLECHE'E, in He- raldry, is ufually underftood of an Ordi- ary open to the Light, or piere'd thro' nth another inner one of the fame Fi- gure ; e.g. when a Crofs appears as if charg'd with another Crofs of the fame
never come. Some Notes of the Treble, v.g. may be lower
than fome of the mean Parts, or even of the Bafs. To put
together therefore in one Syftem all the Parts of a Compo-
fition written feparately, the Notes of each Part muft be
plac'd at the fame Diftances above and below the proper
Clef, as they Hand in the feparate Syftem ; and becaufe all
the Notes that are confonant, (or heard together) muft
Colour with the Field ; or as if the Hand perpendicularly over each other, that the Notes be-
Field appeared thro' the Apertures longing to each Part may be diftinctly known, they may be
thereof. made with fuch Differences as ftiall not confound or alter
But Colombicrc, and fome other Wri- their Significations with refpeer to Time, but only fhew that
this piercing to be only a Circumftance of they belong ro this or that Part. Thus ftiall we fee how
P P P the