loft the greateft Part of the County £*Awergmk which was taken from him by his Uncle William, affifted by Louis the Young ; and was only left Matter of the little Canton whereof Vodable is the Capital. He had a Son whom he call'd Dauphin, on Account of Guy, or Guigues, his Uncle by the Mother's Side. From his Time his Succeflbrs holding the fame petty Canton of Auvergne, qualified themfelves Dauphins of Auvergne, and bore a Dolphin for their Arms.
DAY, a Divifion of Time, drawn from the Ap- pearance, and Difappearance of the Sun. See Sun.
The Day is of two Kinds, Artificial; and Natural, or Civil.
Artificial D Ay, which feems to be that primarily meant by the Word Day, is the Time of Light; de- termin'd by the Sun's Riling and Setting. This is pro- perly defined the Stay of the Sun above the Horizon: In Oppofition to which, the Time of Darknefs, or, the Sun's Stay below the Horizon from Setting to Rifing again, is call'd Night. See Night.
Natural Day, call'd alfo Civil Day, is the Space of Time wherein the Sun performs one Revolution round the Earth : Or, mere juftly, the Time wherein the Earth makes a Rotation on its Axis. Which the Greeks more properly cxprefs by vii^vftifih Nych- thymeron, q. d. Night-Day.
The Fpocha, or Beginning of the Civil Day, is the Term from which one Day begins, and in which the preceeding 2) ay concludes. The Fixing of this Term is of fome Importance. 'Tis certain that for the more commodious diftinguiftiing of 'Days, it ought to be fix'd in fome Moment of Time wherein the Sun is in fbme difcernible Part of the Heavens. The moft eligible therefore ihou'd be the Moments wherein the Sun paffes either the Horizon or the Meridian. In Effect as there is no Moment can be more accurately deter- mined by Obfervation than that when the Sun paffes through the upper Meridian : if Regard be had to the Exa£tnefs of the Measure, the Noon Tyde, has the belt Pretenfions ; the Rifing and Setting of the Sun being difturb'd by the Refraction; befide that, the Horizon is feldom clear of Clouds. But yet, as the Artificial Day does begin with the Sun's Rife, and ends with the Setting; and befides, the Sun's Pairing the Horizon is a Thing eafily obferved, the Rifing or Setting of the Sun ftiou'd appear the moft com- modious Epoch or Beginning of the Civil-Day.
As then there are not wanting Rcafons for Begin- ning the Natural "Day, both from the Sun's Panning the Meridian, and the Eaftcrn, and Weftcrn Side of the Horizon ; 'tis no Wonder that different Nations ihou'd begin their 50 ay differently.
Accordingly, Firft, The ancient 'Babylonians, ^er- fians, Syrians, and moft other Eaftern Nations, with the prefent Inhabitants of the Balearick Ifiands, the Greeks, Sec. begin their 2) ay with the Sun's Rifing. Secondly, The ancient Athenians and Jews, with the^a- jlrians, "Bohemians, Marcomanni, Silefi&ns, with the mo- dern Italians and Chinefes, reckon it from the Sun's Set- ting. Thirdly, The ancient Umbri and Arabia?is, with the modern A.ftronomcrs, at Noon. And fourthly, The Egyptians and Romans, with the modern Englifh, Trench, Dutch, Germans, Spaniards, and Tortuguefes, at Midnight.
The Day is divided into Hoars ; and the Week, Month, &c. into Days. See Hour, Month, Week. For the different Lengths of the Day in different Climates. See Climate, and Gloee.
It has been a Matter of fome Controverfy among A-ftronomers, whether or no the Natural Days are all equally long throughout the Year ; and if not,
-what is their Difference. M Profeffor of Ma-
thematicks at Sevil, in a Memoir in the 'Fhilofophical uranfatl. atferts, from a continued Series of Obfer- vations for three Years, that they are all equal. Mr. Flamfieed, in the fame Tranfatlions, refutes the Opinion; and mews, that one Day, when the Sun is in the Equinoctial, is fliorter than when he is in the Tropicks, by 40 Seconds; and that 14 Tropical Days longer than fo many Equinoaial ones, by \ of an Hour, or 10 Minutes. The Inequality of the Days flows from two fcvcral Principles ; The one the Ex- centricity of the Earth's Orbit; the other 'the Obli- quity of the Ecliptic with Regard to the Equator which is the Meaiure of Time. As thefe two Caufes happen to be combin'd, the Length of the Day is varied. See Excentricity and Obliquity.
Day, in Law, is frequently ufed for the Day of Appearance in Court, either originally, or upon Affig- Ration ; as, He bad a D*y by the Rolls, i. e, He had
a Day of Appearance affigrtd him. Sometimes, for the Returns of Writs ; e. g. Days in "Bank are Days fct down by State or Order of the Court when Writs fhall be returned, or when the Party mail appear on the Writ ferved. To be ' difmifs'd without Day, fine Die, is to be finally difcharged the Court. Days of 'Prefixioti in the Exchequer. See Remembrancer. Days of Grace, in Commerce, are a Number of Days allow'd by Cuftom for the Payment of a Bill of Exchange, after the fame becomes due, i, e. after the Time it was accepted for is expired. In England, 5 Days of Grace are allowed ; So that a Bill accepted in Order to be pay'd, e.gr. 10 Days after Sight, is not to be pay'd till 13 Days. Throughout France, they allow 10 Days of Grace $ as many at Dantzic^. 8 at Naples ; 6 at Venice, Rotterdam, and An- twerp ; 4 at Franc-fort, and 3 at J.eipfic.
Dog-J) h.ts, or Dies Caniculares. See Hos-Days. Critical Days, Dies Critici. . See Critical Days. Intercalary, or Additional Days. See Interca- lary Days.
DEACON, Diaconus, a Perfon in the loweft De- gree of holy Orders, whofe Bufinefs is to baptize, read in the Church, and aflift at the Celebration of the Eucharift. The Word is form'd from the Latin Diaconus, of the Greek 'S-t&KQvo$ 7 Minifter. See Or- ders and Ordination.
Deacons were inftituted feven in Number by the Apoftles, Atls C. VI. which Number was retain'd a long Time in feveral Churches. Their Office was to ferve in the Agapcea, and to distribute the Bread and Wine to the Communicants, and to difpenfe the Alms. By the ancient Canons, Marriage was not in- compatible with the State and Miniftry of a Dea- con. But 'tis now a long Time that the.Romifli Church has prohibited their Marrying ; and the Pope only grants them Di^penfations for very important Caufes ; and after Difpenfation, they lofe the Rank and Functions of their Order, and return to a Lay State. The Deacons were formerly prohibited fitting with- the Priefts. The Canons of Councils forbid Deacons to confecrate ; that being a facerdotal Office. They alfo prohibit a Deacon being ordain'd, unlcfs he have a Title, or Call, and be at leaft 25 Years of Age. The Em- peror Jufiinian, in Novel 123. affigns the fame Age of 25 Years for a Deacon. But this was the Cuftom when Priefts were not ordained at lefs than 30 Years of Age. At prefent 2,3 Years of Age fufficics for a Deacon. At Rome, under Pope Sylvefier, they had only one Deacon ; then feven were appointed ; then 14, and at laft eighteen, who were calVd Cardinal Deacons, to diftinguiih them from thofe of other Churches. See Cardinal.
Their Office was to take Care of the Temporali- ties of the Church, look to the Rents and Cha- rities, to provide for the Neceffities of the Ecclcfi- afticks, and even of the Pope. The Collecting of the Rents, Alms, &c. belong'd to the Sub-Deacons - 7 the Deacons were the Depositaries and Diftributers. Having thus the Management of the Revenues of the Church in their Hands ; their Authority grew a-pace, as the Riches of the Church increafed. Thofe of Rome, as being Minifters of the flrft Church, preceeded all others, and even at length took Place of the Priefts themfelves. Doubtlefs, it was the Ava- rice of the Priefts that made them give Place to the Deacons, who had the Difpofal of the Money. St. Jerom exclaims againft this Attempt, and proves that a Deacon is interior to a Prieft.
The Council in Trullo, which is the Hid of Con- ftantinople, Arifiinus in his Synopfis of the Canons of that Council, Zonaras on the fame Council, Si- meon Logothetes, and Oecumenius, diftinguiih Dea- cons deftin'd for Service at the Altar, from thofe who had the Care of the Diftribution of the Aims of the Faithful. Thus, the Cuftom of conftituting Deacons, without any other Office but to attend the Prieft at the Altar, being once introduced, thofe fimple Deacons durft no longer pretend to a Supe- riority over the Priefts, As to the other Deacons^ who had got the Adminiftration of the Revenues, they would ftill retain the Superiority ; and for Diftinc- tion fake, where there were feveral, the firft took the Appellation of Arch-Deacon. See ARCH-Deacon, The Deacons rehearfed. certain Prayers at the holy Office, which were thence denominated Diaconics. See Di aconic.
They took Care that the People at Church be- haved themfelves with dae Modefty and Rcfpecr, They were not allowed to teach publickly ; at leaft