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and fallen. Donatus feems likewife to have given into the Doors 5 as it difcharges 'em in great Meafure of the fupcrin-
Do&rine a£ the ArianS, with whom he was clofely allied ; cumbent Weight.
And accordingly, St. Epiphanhts, Theodoret, and fome The Proportions of Doors are adjufted by thofe of a Man:
others, accuie the Donates of Arian^m. But St. Auguftin In larger Buildings they rouft always be larger than in
Ep. 185. to Count 'Boniface, affirms, that the Donatifts, in fmallcr 5 but in none fhould they be lefs than "
rifflianijls ; and others, Maximian, call'd Maximianifs. in middling Buildings, 5 or 6 ; in large Ones, 7 or 8 : In The Donatifts had likewife other Appellations, as Circum- Chambers of the firft., 3 and a half, %% or 4; of the fecond, celliones, Monienfes, or Mountaineers, Campites, Rupi- 4, or 4 and a half 5 and of the third, 5, or 6- 7 in Churches, 7 ' tes, &c or 85 in Gates, 9, 10, or 12: hence their Height is eafy They held three Councils, or Conciliabules 5 that of C/r/v? detcrmin'd ; except for the Gates of Cities, which fliould 'iii$Furmdia, and two at Carthage. Conftantthe decreed Bxi% only be f of their Breadth. and even Death, againft the Donatifts. Conftans, and Ho- 'Tis an Observation of the excellent 'Palladia, that the norms, made Laws for their Baniihmcnt : And Theodofius, principal Door, or Eutrance of a Houfe, mult never be rcgu- and Honor ins, candemn'd 'em to grievous Mulcts. lated by any certain Dimenfions, but by the Dignity of the a Prefent made any Perfon, Perfon that is to live in it : yet, to exceed rather in the more, than the lefs, is a Mark of Generality; and may be excufed with fome noble Emblem, or Inscription, as that of the Conte di Bevilacqtia over his large Gate at Verona y like Difproportion, Patet Ja- DONATIVE, Donativum ; call'd alfo Gratuity. The Romans made large Donatives to their Soldiers. fuliaPia, Wife of the Emperor Severus, is call'd on certain Medals, MATER CASTRORVM, by reafon of the Care where had been committed /he took of the Soldiery, by Interpofing for the Augmenta- mta, Cor magis. tion of their Donatives, &c. DORIC, in Grammar. The Doric Dialetl is one of The Donative was properly the Gift made the Forces in the five Dialetls, or Manners of fpeaking which obtain'd the Army; as the Congiarius was that made the People. among the Greeks. Sec Dialect. Salmofius in his Notes on Lampridius, in the Life cf He- It was firft us'd by the Laced-emonians, and particularly liogahalus, mentioning, a Donative that Emperor gave of thofe of Argos $ thence it pafs'd into Epirus, Lybia, Si- three Pieces of Gold per Head, obferves, that this was' the city, the Illands of Rhodes, and Crete. common, and legitimate Rate aba. Donative. Cafaubon in \n this Dialed, Archimedes and 'Theocritus wrote, who his Notes on the Life of Pertinax, by Capitolimis, obferves, were both of Syracuse ; and likewife Pindar. Port Royal. that Pertinax made a Prom if e of three thoufand Denarii In Strictnefs, however, we fhould rather define Doric the to each Soldier 5 which amounted to upwards of <■)•} Pounds Manner of fpeaking peculiar to the Dorians, after their Re- Sterling. See Coin. cefs near Pamaffus, and Ajbpus 5 and which afterwards The fame Author writes, that the legal Donative was came to obtain among the Lacedemonians, &c. acoco Denarii ; and that it was not cuftomary to give lefs, Some even diftinguifh between the Lace demon ia?z, and Do- efpecially to the Pretorian Soldiers 5 that the Centurions r j c . but in Reality they were the fame 3 fitting afide a had double, and the Tribunes, £?c. more in Proportion. few Particularities in the Language of the Lacedemonians $ Donative, in the Cannon Law, a Benefice given, and as is fhewn by Rulandns in his -excellent Treatife, de Lingua collated to a Perfcn, by the Founder, or Patron 3 without either Graca, e'yiifqiie Dialetlis, L. V- Prefentation, Inftkution, or Induction by the Ordinary. See Betide the Authors already mentiond to have wrote in the Benefice. Doric Dialect, we might add Arcbitas ofTarentum, Bion, If Chappels founded by Laymen, be not approv'd by the Callinus, Simonides, Baccbylides, Cypfe/as, Alcman, and )iocefan, and, as 'tis call'd, jpiritualized, they are not ac- Sophron. Dioce: , counted proper Benefices, neither can they be conferr'd by the Bifhop, but remain to the pious Difpofition of the Founders: So that, the Founders, and their Heirs, may give fuch Chap- pels without the Bifhop. Gregorius de Beneficiis. See Chappel. G'lvin obferves, that the King might of ancient Time found a free Chappel, and exempt it from the Jurifdiction of the Diocefan. So may he by Letters Patents give Liberty to a common Perfon to found fuch a Chappel, and make it Do- native Not-prefentable. And the Chaplain, or Beneficiary, fhall be deprivable by the Founder, or his Heir, and not by the Bifhop. And this feems to be the Original of Donatives in England. All Bifhopricks in ancient Time were Donative by the Again, where a Bifhop has the Gift of a Benefice, it is Sophr Moft of the Medals of the Greater Greece and Sicily fa- vour of the fame Dialect in their Inscriptions ; Witnefs, AMBRAKIS1TAN, AirOAASlNTATAN, AXKPONTAN, AXT- PITAN, HPAKAESiTAN, TI-'AXlNlflN ©EPMITAN, KAT- AONIATAN, KOniATAN, TATPOMENIT AN, &C Which Ihcws the Countries wherein the Doric Dialect was ufed. The general Rules of this Dialect are thus given by the Port Royalifis. d'e d\ & £v la fact le Dorc. w, & d'& av fait Encafa. & pour le Singulier Se fcrt au Veminin du Nomhre Plurier. But they are much better explain'd in the IVth Book of Rulandus ; where he even not^s the minuter Differences of the Dialects of Sicily, Crete, Tarentum, Rhodes, Lacede- D' n fait lira, d'vy Ofic 1 de I Infn. properly call'd a Donative, becaufe he cannot prefent to him- mon, Laconia, Macedonia, and Thejfaly. felfT See Benefice, Patron, Presentation, Colla- tion, &o DONJON. See Dungeon. Donjon, in Fortification, is generally taken for a large Tower, or Redoubt of a Fortrefs, where the Garrifon may retreat 'in Cafe of Nccefltty, and capitulate with greater Ad- DONOR, in Law, he who gives Lands, or Tenements to Architecture Doric, in Architecture, is the fecond of the five Orders; being that between the 'Tufcan and Lome. S.'e Order, The Doric Order feems the moft natural, and bell propor- tioned of all- the Orders ; all irs Parts being founded on the natural Pofition of folid Bodies. Accordingly, the Doric is the firft, and moft ancient of the Orders of Architecture, and is what gave the firft Idea of regular Building. Sec another in Tail : And Donee, is he to whom the fame are given. See Donation, &c. DOOR, in Architecture, an Aperture in a Wall, to give Entrance, and Exit in, and out of the Building, or an Apart- ment thereof. See House, Building, Aperture, £S>ff. It ought to be a Rule, that the Doors of a Houfe be as few in Number, and as moderate in Dimenfions, as poffible- At its firft Invention it was more fimple than at prefent ; and when in After-times they came to adorn, and enrich it more, the Appellation Doric was reftrain'd to this richer Manner, and the primitive fimple Manner they call'd by a new Name the Tufcan Order. See Tuscan. The Tradition is, that Dorffl, King of Achaza, having firft built a Temple of this Order &t Argos, which he dedi- For in a Word," all Openings are Weakenings. 2. That they cated to Jzmo, occafion d it to 1 do not approach too near the Angles of the Walls 5 It being derive its Name, I know not h a molt (Sarins Sollecifm to weaken that Part, which muff orusd by the Dorians. be call'd Doric : Tho' others ow, from its bcina invented. weaken "all tlie reft : A Precept, well recorded, but ill prac- tifed by the Italians themfelves, particularly at Venice. 5. That the Soon, if poffible, be right over one another 5 _ that void may be over void, and full over full. 4. That, if poffible, they be oppofite to each other, fo as that one may Some time after its Invention they reduced it to the Pro- portions, Strength, and Beauty of the Body of a Man. Hence, as the Foot of a Man was judg'd the 6'th Part of his Height, they made the Doric Column, including the Capital, 6 Dia- meters high, i.e. fix times as high as thick. Afterwards they fee from one End ot the Houfe to another ; which will not added another Diameter to the Height, and made it 7 Dia- only be graceful, but alfo convenient; as it affords a Means meters 5 with which Augmentation it might oe laid to be of cooling the Houfe in Summer, by letting in Air ; and of nearer the Proportion of a Man : The human Foot, at Icaft keeping out the Wind in Winter, which Way foever it fit. in our Days, not being a tfth, but neariy a 7th Part ok the 5. Tis not only Ornamental, but fecure, to turn Arches over Body. See Column,