Page:Cyclopaedia, Chambers - Volume 1.djvu/82
A D U
A D U
This is alfo one of the Times, from the Beginning where- of, to the End of the Octaves of the Epiphany, the folem- nizing of Marriage is forbid, without exprefs Licence. See Marriage; fee aifo Rogation.
ADVENTITIOUS, fomething accruing, or befalling a Perfon or Thing, from without. See Accession, £5c.
Thus, Adventitious Matter, is fuch Matter as doth not properly belong to any Body, but is cafually joined to it. See Accretion, Adjunctio, t£c.
Adventitious, in the Civil Law, is applied to fuch Goods as fall to a Man, either by mere Fortune, or by the Liberality of a Stranger, or by Collateral Succeffion. See Goons.
The Word is ufed in opposition to ProfcBitiotis ; by which arc Signified fuch Goods as defcend in a direct Line, from Father to Son. See Profectitious.
AD Ventrem inf[nciendum, in Law. See Ventre infpi- ciendo.
ADVENTURE, an extraordinary, and furprizing Enter- prize, or Accident, either real or fictitious. See Fable.
Novels, Romances, £^C. are chiefly taken up in relating the Adventures of Cavaliers, Lovers, &c. See Novel, and Romance.
The Word is French, and literally denotes an Event, or Accident.
Company of Merchant Adventurers, was an antient Denomination of the Hamburgh Company. See Hamburgh Company.
ADVERB, Adverbium, in Grammar, a Particle join'd to a Verb, Adjective, or Participle, to explain their man- ner of acting or fuffering - 7 or to mark fome Circumitance or Quality Signified by them. See Particle, Verb, £5?c.
The Word is formed from the Prcpofition ad, and ver- btim 5 and Signifies literally a Diction join'd to a Verb, to ihow how, or when, or where, one is, does, or fuffers ■. As, the Boy paints neatly, writes ill; the Book is there, &c.
Not that the Adverb is confin'd purely to Verbs ; but becaufe that is its moft ordinary ufe. — We frequently find it join'd to Adjectives, and lome times even to-SubUantives, particularly where thofe Subitanrives fignify an Attribute, or Quality of the Thing fpoken of, v. g. He is very fick 5 he acts prudently ; he is truly King.
An Adverb is likewife join'd, fometlmes to another Ad- verb, to modify its meaning, v.g. very devoutly, &c. Whence fome Grammarians chufe radier to call them Modificatives 5 comprizing under this one general Term, both Adverbs, Conjunctions, Prepofitioiis, and even Adjectives, See Mo-
Adverbs are very numerous, but may be reduced under the general CUffes of Adverbs of lime., of 'Place, of Or- der, of Quantity, of Quality, of Manner, of Affirmation, of 'Doubting, and of ComParifon.
ADVERSARIA, among the Antients, was ufed for a Book of Accounts, like our Journal or Day-Book ; thus called, quod adverfa parte etiam fcri^tis impleretur, be- caufe wrote even on the Back fide.
Hence, Adverfaria is fametimes alfo ufed among us for a Common- place-S 00k. Sec Common -'Place.
ADVERSARY. See Antagonist, Opponent, Com- bat, Duel, £#c.
The Word is form'd of the Latin Prepofltion Adverfus, againft ; from ad, and verto, I turn to.
ADVERSATIVE, in Grammar.— A "Particle, or Con- junction Adverfative, is that which expteffes fome Diffe- rence, or Opposition between what goes before, and what follows. See Conjunction.
Thus, or is an Adverfative, v. g. Tes, or no.
ADVERTISEMENT, an Intelligence, or Information, given to Perfons interested in an Affair.
The Word is form'd of the French Avert! ffement, from the Latin Advertere, to advert, confider, regard.
ADULT, Adultus, one who is come to Years of Dif- cretion ; who is enter'd upon Manhood, or the Age of Ado- Icfcence 5 and is old and big enough to have Understand- ing, and Difcernment. See Age.
The Word is formed from the Participle of the Verb ado- lefco, I grow up. Sec Adolescence.
The Anabaptists confer the Sacrament of Baptifm upon none but Adults. See Baptism, and Anabaptist.
There is a notable Difference between the Proportions of Infants and Adults.- -A Man, M. 2)odart obferves, form'd like a Fcetus, would be a Monftcr, and wou'd fcarce be ac- knowledged for one of the Species. See Foetus, and Em- bryo.
ADULTERATION, Adulteratio, the Act of deba- sing a Medicine or other thing, with bad Ingredients; or the putting one thing for, and into another. See Sophistica- tion.
To adulterate the current Coin, is a Capital Crime in all Nations. See Money, and Coin.
The Word is Latin - form'd of the Verb Adulterate^ to corrupt by mingling fomething foreign to any Subftance.
ADULTERINE, in the Civil Law, a Child iffued from an adulterous Amour, or Commerce. Sec Adultery.
Adulterine Children are more odious than the ill pi • re Offspring of Single Perfons.— The Reman Law even em the Title of Natural Children 5 as if Nature diibwri'd 'em. See Bastard.
ADULTERY, Adulterium, in our antient Law Books call'd Advowtry, a Crime committed by married Per- fons, againit the Faith pledged to each other in M.irriage; by having carnal Commerce with fome other : or LVtn by a Perfon not married ; by having to do with another that is. See Fornication, Marriage, &c.
The antient Romans had no formal Law againft Adulte- ry ; but both Accufation and Punifliment were arbitrary. — ■ The Emperor Auguftus was the firit who brought them into a Law ; which he had the Misfortune to fee executed in
the Perfons of his own Children.- -This was the Julian
But, tho this Law left the Accufation of Adultery open to every body, yet 'tis certain, Adultery has been always look'd upon as a private and domeitick Crime, rather than a publick one ; fo that Strangers were feldom fuffer'd to profecute, efpecially where the Marriage was peaceable, and the Husband made no Complaint.
Some of the fucceeding Emperors abrogated this Law, which left the Accufation of Adultery open to Strangers 5 in regard fuch an Accufation could no"t be enter'd, without fetting the Husband and Wife at Variance, throwing the Children into a State of Uncertainty, and bringing Contempt and DcriSion upon the Husband ; for as the Husband is the nearlieft interested in the Matter, 'tis fuppofed he will exa- mine the Wife's Actions with more Circumvention than any other : So that where he is Silent, 'tis not fair any body elfe Should fpeak for him. See Accusation.
For this reafon, the Law, in fome Cafes, has made the Husband both Judge and Executioner in his own Caufe ; and has allow'd him to revenge himfelf of the Injury, by taking away the Lives of the Adulterers whom he Should apprehend in the Ail. — Tis true, where the Husband made a Trade of his Wife's Infamy, or where having feen her Shame with his own Eyes, he jet fuffer'd patiently, and diifcmbled the Affront ; in thefe Cafes, Adultery became a Crime of publick Concern : and the Julian Law provides Punishments for fuch Husbands, as well as their Wives.
In moft European Countries, at this Day, Adultery is not a publick Crime ; and none but the Husband is Suffered to intermeddle, excepting where the Scandal is very notorious. — Even the King's Advocates, Attorney, or the like, may not intermeddle.
Add, that tho the Husband who violates the Conjugal Bond be guilty of Adultery as well as the Wife ; yet is not the Wife ailow'd to accufe, or profecute him for the fame. See Wife, Husband, &g.
Socrates relates, L. V. c. 8. that under the Emperor 7%eo~ dofius, in the Year 380, Women convicted of Adultery were punifh'd by a publick Conitupration.
Lycurgns punifh'd the Adulterer as a Parricide.— The Lccrians tore out his Eyes ; and moft of the Orientals pu- nifh him very Severely.
The Saxons formerly burnt the Adulterefs, and over her Afhes erected a Gibbet, whereon the Adulterer was hang'd. — In England, King Edmond punifh'd Adultery as Homi- cide ; but Canutus ordained the Man to be banim'd, and
the Woman to have her Nofe and Ears cut off. ghti uxo-
ratus faciei Adulterium, habet Rex vel dominus juperio- rem ; Epifcopus inferiorem. I,. Flen. I. c. 12. De Adul- ttnoper totam Client, habet Rex hominem, Epifcopus mulie- rcm. Domefday, tit. Ceflre Civir.
In Spain, they punifh'd Adultery by cutting off that Part which had been the Instrument of the Crime. — In <Poland % before Christianity was eflablifh'd, they punifh'd 4d->ltery and Fornication in a very particular manner : The Criminal they carried into the Markct-Place, and there falten'd him by the Teiticles with a Nail 5 laying a Razor within his reach, and leaving him under a Neccffity, either of doing Juitice upon himfelf, or of perifhing in that Condition.
At prelenr, the Laws are much more favourable : — To Divorce, and Strip the Adulterefs of her Dower, is all her PuniShment among us: In the Romiflo Countries, they alfo Shut 'em up in Nunneries.
The Lacedemonians, inStcad of punifhing Adultery, per- mitted it, or at leait tolerated it ; as wc are told by Plu- tarch, See Concubine.
According to fome of the Papal Decisions, Adultery ren- ders Marriage between the two Criminals unlawful ; this making what the Schools call Impedimentnm Criminis.
The Greeks, and other Christians throughout the Eaft, ad- here to the Opinion that Adultery dissolves the Band of Marriage : So that the Husband, without more ado, may marry another. — The Council of Trent condemns that Opi- nion ; and even in fome meafure anathematizes thole who hold it. Sejf.XXlY. Can. 7.