Page:Cyclopaedia, Chambers - Volume 2.djvu/258
imns* He was fucceeded at a good diflance by Manuel Bryenmus.
Of the Latins we have Boethius, who wrote in the time of Tbeodoric the Goth, and one Cajjiodorus ; about the fame time Mart inn us, and St. Juguftm not far remote. Of the Moderns are Zarl'm, Salinas^ Vmcenzo Galileo, Doni, Kircher, Merfenne, Faran, de Caux, Ferrault, Walhs, Des Cartes, Holdifworth, Malcolm, &<
MUSICAL Sound, ^ rSouND,
via/jwvi iv , juuiLvim, cxx.
GAL Sound, * £"Sound. '
^CAL Strijig, / c , 3 Chord.
CAL Faculties,^ y Music.
[CAh Notes, j 'Note.
MUSK, a kind of Perfume, of a very flrong Scents dellinate.
Believer, or Orthodox. In Arab'ic they call it M^flem, Moflc- man, and Mofolmam. Set Mahometan.
The Name was firi* given the Sarazem ; as is obferved by Leunda-uuts. There are two kinds of Mujfulmen , very averfe to each other ; the one call'd Sonjti, and the other Cbay. The Somu follow the Interpretation of the Alcoran given by Omer ; and the Cbay arc Followers of Haly. The Subjects of the King of Fe-.fia are Cbay ; and thofe of the Grand Signor, Sonni.
Some Authors will have ir,. that Mujjulman fignifics Saved, that is, Predcliinatcd ; and that the Mahometans give them- ielves the Appellation, as believing themiclves all Pre-
only agreeable when moderated by the Mixture of fome other Perfume. See Perfume.
It is found in a kind of Bag, or Tumour growing about the bignefs of a Hen's Egg under the Belly towards the genital Parts of a wild JKeail of the fame Name ; and ap- pears to be nothing elfe but a kind of bilious Blood there congealed, and almoft corrupted.
The Animal is pretty common in the Kingdoms of Boa tan, Tonquin, and fome other, as Cochin China, £5c. But the nioft elteemed are thofe in the Kingdom of Tibet.
They inhabit the Woods and Forefts, where the Natives hunt 'em down : when the Beaft is kilFd, they cut out the Bladder under the Belly, feparate the coagulated Blood, and dry it in the Sun, where it is reduced into a light friable Subllance almoft of the nature of a Powder, of a dusky reddifh Colour ; and acquires a very ftrongsnd difagreeablc Smell. It is then tied up again in Veffcls, and exported to other Countreys ; and th" we ufe.
What the Antients have wrote of it, is fabulous, viz. that it comes from the Teilicles of a Caftor, which, tollop thepurfuit of the Hunter, cattrates itfelf. The occafion of their Error may be owing to this, that among the Indians the Mu sk Animal goes by the name of Cajior.
Musk is in confiderablp ufe among the Perfumers and Con-
Mariinius\s more particular as to the Origin of the Name, he derives it from the Arabic CD^uO Mufalam, Saved, ta- ken out of Danger ; and obierves, that the Mahometans ellabliihing their Religion by Fire and Sword, maffacred all thole who would nor embrace ir, and granted Life to all that did, calling them Mujfulmam ; i.e. Erej>ti e fericulo, whence the Word, in courfe of Time, became the diflin- guiniing Title of all thofe of that Seel, who have affixed to it the fignirlcation of True believer.
MUSULMANISM, fee Mahometanism,
MUTATION, the Aft or Changing : or, fometimes the Change itfelf. See Change and Permutation.
'Tis one of the Laws of Nature, that the Mutation of Motion is ever proportional to the moving Force imprefs'd. See Nature.
Mutation, in the antient Mufic, fignifies the Changes, or Alterations that happen in the Order of the Sounds which is the Musk which compufe the Melody.
Jrijloxemts fays it is, as it were, a kind of Paffion in the Order of the Melody. See Melody.
The Changes are, firf*, in the Genera-? when the Song be- gins in one, as the Chromatic, and paflrs into another, as the Diatonic. Secondly, In the Syitem; as when the Song paffes out of one Tctracbord, as Mejon, into another, as Diazeugmenon ; or more generally, when itpaffcs from a high
feftioners ; tho much^Iefs now than formerly. It is fup- place of the Scale to a lower, or contrartly, i.e. part
poled to fortify the Heart and Brain ; and is good againft of it is fung high, and part low. Thirdly, In the Mode or
Deafnefs 5 but is little ufed in Medicine, as being apt to Tone, as when the Song begins in one, as the Doric ; and
occafion the Vapours. paffes into another, as the Lydian. Fourthly, In the Melo-
The Word comes from the Arabic Mofcba, Musk: fixia, that is, when the Song changes the very Air, fo as
whence was form'd the common Greek ^ot©"- from Gay and Sprightly, to become Soft and Languifli-
MUSKET, or Musquet, a Fire-Arm bore on the J n g ; or from a Manner that expreffes one Paflion or Sub- Shoulder, and ufed in War 5 to be fired by the Applica- j e £t, to the Exprefiion of fome other, tion of a lighted Match. See Fir •e.-Arm. MUTE, in Grammar, a Letter which is not founded, or
The length of the Musket is fixed to thrae Feet eight heard in the Pronunciation; or a Letter which yields no
Inchcsfromthe Muzzle to the Touch-Pan, and its Bore is Sound of itfelf and without a Vowel. See Letter.
to be fuch as may receive a Ball of %i to 24 in a Pound. The Confonants are ordinarily diflinguifhed into Mutes
Mmkets were antiently bore in the Field by the Infantry; and Liquids, crhalf Vowels. See Consonant.
at prefent they are little ufed fave in the Defence of Places. ThcMtttes in the Englifi Alphabet are Eleven, viz. B,
MUSKETOON, a little Mufquet, ihorter, tho thicker C, D, G, H, K, P, Q, T. They arecali'd Mutes becaufe
than the ordinary Mufquer. a Liquid can't be founded in the fame Syllable before
It is fired by the collirion of a Steel and Flintin the Lock ; them, as rpo ; but a Mute may be pronounced in the fame
whereas the Mufquet is fired by a Match. Its Bore is a Syllable before a Liquid, a.s pro, See Liquid.
58th part of its Length ; and carries five Ounces of Iron, Mute, Dumb, a Perfon that cannot fpeak, or has not
orfevenand a half of Lead, with an equal Quantity of the ufe of Speech. Sec Dumbness.
Powder. Mutes and Dwarfs make their Fortune in the Grand
MUSSLIN, Muslin, or Mousselin, a fine Cloth, Signor's Seraglio. The Mutes ferve as Executioners to take
wholly of Cotton ; fo call'd as not being even, but having off Perfons of the firil Rank.
adowny Nap on its Surface refembling Mofs, which the Mute, in Law, he that Hands Dumb, or Speechlefs.
French call'd MouJJe. A Prifonermay Hand Mute two manner of ways ; i.When
Thereare various kinds of Mit/lim brought from the Eafi- he fpeaks norat all: In which Cafe it is enquired, whe-
htdies, chiefly Bengali ; Betelles\ Tarnatans, Mallemolles, Tan- ther he Hand Mute of Malice, or by the Acl of God : If
jebs, Terindames, Doreas, &c.
MUST, fweet Wine, newly preffed from the Grape ; or the new Liquor prefs'd from the Fruits before it has work'd or fermented. See Wine.
MUSTARD, a Preparation of a Grain of that Name, ground or beaten up with Vinegar, or the Muji of Wine 5 whence its Name.
MUSTARD-SEED, in Latin Sinapi, gives the Deno- mination to a Species of Topical Medicines call'd Sinapifms. SeeSiNAPisM
by the latter, then the Judge, ex Officio, ought to enquire whether he be the fame Perfon ; and of all other Pleas, which he might have pleaded if he had not flood Mute. 2. He is faid to be Mute when he pleads not Guilty, or does not directly ar.fwer, or will not put himfelf upon the Enqueft to be tried.
MUTILATION, the retrenching, or cutting away of any Member of the Body.
The ufe of the Word is alfo extended to Statues and Buildings, where any part is wanting, or the Proje&ure of
Mttjiard-Seed is alfo ufed in preparing Chagrine. See any Member is broke off.
Mutilation is fometimes underftood in a more imme diate mannerfor Caftration. See Castration.
MUSTER, a Review of Military Forces, in order to take account of their Numbers, Condition, Accoutrements, Arms,£5?c.
The Word is form'd of "the Fre;;d> Moujire, Specimen. See Review.
Muster of Record (Stat. 18 Hen. 6.) is to be enrolled the Number of the King's Soldiers. *
MUTUAL, a relative Term, denoting fomething that is reciprocal between two or more Perfons. See Reci- procal.
Thus we fay Mutual AJJlftance, Mutual Averjlon, &c.
There are Mutual, or reciprocal Duties, Offices, &c, be- tween Superiors, and Inferiors ; the King and his Subjects 5
MusTER-M-i/rer General, or Mafler of the King's Mws- the Matter and his Servants, &c.
ters is an Officer in an Army, who takes account of Vaugelas makes a Diflinc"tion between Mutual and Reci-
every Regiment, their Number, Horfes, Arms, Sfc. procal. Mutual, according to him, is underfiood of what is
Muster-M', are Lifts of the Soldiers in every Troop, between two only ; and Reciprocal of what is between
Company, Regiment, iSc. more than two. But this Decifion is little regarded in
MUSULMAN, a Title by which the Mahometans di- common ufe.
ftinguifh themfelves ; fignifying, in their Language, True 1 QL. A