Page:Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology (1870) - Volume 1.djvu/761

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CICERO. 743

* Pro M. Aemilio Scauro, в. с. 54. [Scaurus.]

Pro Crasso in Senatu, в. с. 54. (Ad Fam. i. 9. § 7.)

Pro Druso, в. с. 54. (Ad Att. iv. 15.) [Drusus.]

Pro C. Messio, в. с. 54. (Ad Att. iv. 15.) [Messius.]

De Reatinorum Causa contra Interamnates. (Ad Att. iv. 15.)

* * ''De Aere alieno Milonis Interrogatio'', в. с. 53. [Milo.]

Pro T. Annio Milone, в. с. 52 [Milo.]

Pro Saufeio. Two orations. в. с. 52. [Saufeius.]

Contra T. Munatium Plancum. In Dec. b. c. 52. (See Ad Fam. viii. 2, Philipp. vi. 4; Dion Cass. xl. 55.)

Pro Cornelio Dolabella, в. с. 50. (Ad Fam. iii. 10.)

[Pro M. Marcello, в. с. 47. [M. Marcellus.] ]

Pro Q. Ligario, в. с. 46. [Q. Ligarius.]

Pro Rege Deiotaro, B. C. 45. [Deiotarus.]

De Pace, in Senatu, 17 March, в. с. 44. (Dion Cass. xliv. 63.)

It will be seen from the marks attached to the Orations in the above lists that doubts are entertained with regard to the genuineness of those Pro Archia, Post Reditum in Senatu, Pro Domo sua ad Pontifices, De Haruspicum Responsis, Pro M. Marcello. An account of the controversy with regard to these is given under M. Marcellus.

The following are universally allowed to be spurious, and therefore have not been admitted into the catalogue:

[“Responsio ad Orationem C. Sallustii Crispi.”
[Sallustius.]

Oratio ad Populum et ad Equites antequam iret in exilium.

Epistola s. Declamatio ad Octavianum.

Oratio adversus Valerium.

Oratio de Pace.]

The Editio Princeps of the Orations is probably that printed in 1471 at Rome by Sweynheym and Pannartz, fol., under the inspection of Andrew, bishop of Aleria. Another edition was printed in the same year at Venice, by Valdarfer; and a third at Venice, in 1472, by Ambergau, both in folio; besides which there is a fourth, in very ancient characters, without date, name of place or printer, which many bibliographers believe to be the earliest of all. The most useful editions are those of Jo. Roigny, fol., Paris, 1536, containing a complete collection of all the commentaries which had appeared up to that date; of Graevius, 3 vols. in 6 parts, Amsterdam, 1695—1699, forming part of the series of Variorum Classics in 8vo., and comprising among other aids the notes of Manutins and Lambinus entire; to which we may add that of Klotz, Leipzig, 1835, 3 vols. 8vo., with excellent introductions and annotations in the German language. The best edition of each speech will be noticed when discussing the speech itself.

3. Correspondence.

Cicero during the most important period of his life maintained a close correspondence with Atticus, and with a wide circle of literary and political friends and connexions. Copies of these letters do not seem to have been systematically preserved, and so late as в. с. 44 no regular collection had been formed, although Tiro was at that time in possession of about seventy, which he is supposed to have published with large additions after the death of his patron. (Ad Att. xvi. 5, comp. ad Fam. xvi. 17.) We now have in all upwards of eight hundred, undoubtedly genuine, extending over a space of 26 years, and commonly arranged in the following manner:

1. "Epistolarum ad Familiares s. Epistolarum ad Diversos Libri XVI," titles which have been permitted to keep their ground, although the former conveys an inaccurate idea of the contents, and the latter is bad Latin. The volume contains a series of 426 epistles, commencing with a formal congratulation to Pompey on his success in the Mithridatic war, written in the course of в. с. 62, and terminating with a note to Cassius, despatched about the beginning of July, в. с. 43, announcing that Lepidus had been declared a public enemy by the senate, in consequence of having gone over to Antony. They are not placed in chronological order, but those addressed to the same individuals, with their replies, where these exist, are grouped together without reference to the date of the rest. Thus the whole of those in the third book are addressed to Appius Pulcher, his predecessor in the government of Cilicia; those of the fourteenth to Terentia; those of the fifteenth to Tiro; those of the fourth to Sulpicius, Marcellus, and Figulus, with replies from the two former; while the whole of those in the eighth are from M. Caelius Rufus, most of them transmitted to Cicero while in his province, containing full particulars of all the political and social gossip of the metropolis.

2. " Epistolarum ad T. Pomponium Atticum Libri XVI." A series of 396 epistles addressed to Atticus, of which eleven were written in the years в. с. 68, 67, 65, and 62, the remainder after the end of в. с. 62, and the last in Nov. в. с. 44. (Ad Att. xvi. 15.) They are for the most part in chronological order, although dislocations occur here and there. Occasionally, copies of letters received from or sent to others--from Caesar, Antony, Balbus, Hirtius, Oppius, to Dolabella, Plancus, &c;., are included; and to the 16th of the last book no less than six are subjoined, to Plancus, Capito, and Cupiennius.

3. "Epistolarum ad Q. Fratrem Libri III." A series of 29 epistles addressed to his brother, the first written in в. с. 59, while Quintus was still propraetor of Asia, containing an admirable summary of the duties and obligations of a provincial governor; the last towards the end of в. с. 54.

4. We find in most editions "Epistolarum ad Brutum Liber," a series of eighteen epistles all written after the death of Caesar, eleven from Cicero to Brutus, six from Brutus to Cicero, and one from Brutus to Atticus. To these are added eight more, first published by Cratander, five from Cicero to Brutus, three from Brutus to Cicero. The genuineness of these two books has proved a fruitful source of controversy, and the question cannot be said to be even now fully decided, although the majority of scholars incline to believe them spurious. [Brutus, No. 21.]

5. In addition to the above, collections of letters by Cicero are quoted by various authors and grammarians, but little has been preserved except the names. Thus we can trace that there must have once existed two books to Cornelius Nepos, three books to Caesar, three books to Pansa, nine books to Hirtius, eight books to M. Brutus, two books to young M. Cicero, more than one book to Calvus,