Page:Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology (1870) - Volume 2.djvu/422

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408
HERMAPHRODITUS.
HERIUS.

evidence respecting the murder of P. Clodiiis on the 20th of January, B. C. 52. (Ascon. in Cic. Milonian. p. 35. Orelli.)


14. Herennius, a young man of profligate habits, whom Augustus expelled from the army. When the order was issued, he asked, " How shall I present myself at home? What can I say to my father? " " Tell him," replied Augustus, " that you did not like me." Herennius had been scarred on the forehead by a stone, and boasted of it as an honourable wound. But Augustus counselled him : " Herennius, next time you run away, do not look behind you." (Macrob. Sat. ii. 4.)


15. M. Herennius, M. f. Picens, was consul suffectus in the last two months of B. C. 34. The cognomen Picens is doubtful. As Picenum was a Sabellian district, Picens may indicate a branch of the Herennia Gens settled therein. [W.B. D.]


16. Here'nnius Ca'pito, was procurator of Iamnia, near the coast of Palestine. He arrested Herodes Agrippa [Agrippa, Herodes 1.] for a debt to the imperial treasury, and reported his defalcation and consequent flight to the emperor Tiberius, A. D. 35—6. (Joseph. Antiq. xviii. 6. § 3, 4.) [W.B. D.]


HERE'NNIUS ETRUSCUS. [Etruscus.]


HERE'NNIUS GALLUS. [Gallus.]


HERE'NNIUS MACER. [Macer.]


HERE'NNIUS MODESTI'NUS. [Modestinus.]


HERE'NNIUS PO'LLIO. [Pollio.]


HERE'NNIUS PO'NTIUS. [Pontius.]


HERE'NNIUS SENE'CIO. [Senecio.]


HERE'NNIUS SEVE'RUS. [Severus.]


HERE'NNIUS SI'CULUS, [Siculus.]


HERILLUS (Ἥριλλος), of Carthage, a Stoic philosopher, was the disciple of Zeno of Cittium. He did not, however, confine himself to the opinions of his master, but held some doctrines directly opposed to them. He held that the chief good consisted in knowledge (ἐπιστήμη). This notion is often attacked by Cicero, who in two places speaks of his tenets as "jamdiu fracta et exstincta," and as "jampridem explosa." He wrote some books, which, according to Diogenes, were short, but full of force. Their titles were Περὶ ἀσκήσεως, Περὶ παθῶν, Περὶ ὑπολήψεως, Νομοθέτης, Μαιευτικός, Ἀντιφέμων διδάσκαλος, Διασκενάζων, Εὐθύνων, Ἑρμῆς, Μήδεια, Διαλογοι, Θέσεις ἠθικαί. Cleanthes wrote against him. (Diog. Laërt. vii. 165, 166, 174; Cic. Acad. ii. 42, de Fin. ii. 11, 13, iv. 14, 15, v. 8. 25, de Offic. i. 2, de Orat. iii. 17; Brucker, Hist. Philos. vol. i. p. 971; Ritter, Gesch. d. Philos. vol. iii. p. 508; Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. iii. p. 564; Krug, Herilli de summo Bono Sententia explosa non explodenda, in the Symbol. ad Hist. Phil. Lips. 1822, 4to.) [P. S.]


HE'RIUS ASI'NIUS. [Asinius 1.]


HERMA'GORAS (Ἑρμαγόρας) 1. Of Temnos, a distinguished Greek rhetorician of the time of Pompey and Cicero. He belonged to the Rhodian school of oratory, and appears to have tried to excel as an orator (or rather declaimer) as well as a teacher of rhetoric. (Quintil. v. 3. § 59, viii. pr. § 3; Suid. s. v. Ἑρμαγόρας.) But it is especially as a teacher of rhetoric that he is known to us. He devoted particular attention to what is called the invention, and made a peculiar division of the parts of an oration, which differed from that adopted by other rhetoricians. (Quint. Inst. iii. 1. § 16.) Cicero (de Invent. i. 6) opposes his system, but Quintilian defends it (iii. 3. § 9, 5. §§ 4, 16, &c., 6. § 56), though in some parts the latter censures what Cicero approves of. (Cic. de Invent. i. 11; Quintil. iii. 6. § 60, &c.) But in his eagerness to systematise the parts of an oration, he entirely lost sight of the practical point of view from which oratory must be regarded. (Quintil iii. 11. § 22; Tacit. de Orat. 19.) He appears to have been the author of several works which are lost; Suidas mentions Ῥητορικαί, Περὶ ἐζεργασίας, Περὶ φράσεως, Περὶ σχηνάτων, Περὶ πρέποντος. (See the passages in which Cicero discusses the views of Hermagoras in Orelli's Onom. Tull. s. v.; comp. Westermann, Gesch. d. Griech. Beredtsamk. § 81. note 11. § 83. notes 11—13; C. G. Piderit, de Hermagora Rhetore Commentatio, Hersfeld, 1839, 4to.)


2. Surnamed Carion, likewise a Greek rhetorician, who lived in the time of Augustus, and taught rhetoric at Rome, together with Caecilius, and is called Hermagoras the younger. He was a disciple of Theodorus of Gadara. (Quint. Inst. iii. 1. § 18; Suid. s. v. Ἐρμαγόρας, who confounds the Temnian with Hermagoras Carion.) Whether the Hermagoras with whom Pompey, on his return from Asia, disputed at Rhodes Περί τῆς καθ̓ ὅλον ζητήσεως (Plat. Pomp. 42), is the younger or elder one, is uncertain.


3. Of Amphipolis, a Stoic philosopher and disciple of Perseus, the slave and afterwards freedman of Zeno. He is mentioned only by Suidas (l.c.), who also gives the titles of some of his works, which are completely lost. [L. S.]


HERMANU'BIS (Ἑρμανοῦβις), a son of Osiris and Nephthys, was represented as a human being with a dog's head, and regarded as the symbol of the Egyptian priesthood, engaged in the investigation of truth. (Plut. de Is. et Os. 61; Diod. i. 18, 87.) [L. S.]


HERMAPHRODI'TUS (Ἑρμαφρόδιτος). The name is compounded of Hermes and Aphrodite, and is synonymous with ἀνδρογύνης, γύνανδρος, ἡμίανδρος, &c. He was originally a male Aphrodite (Aphroditus), and represented as a Hermes with the phallus, the symbol of fertility (Paus. i. 19. § 2), but afterwards as a divine being combining the two sexes, and usually with the head, breasts, and body of a female, but with the sexual parts of a man. According to a tradition in Ovid (Met. iv. 285, &c.), he was a son of Hermes and Aphrodite, and consequently a great-grandson of Atlas, whence he is called Atlantiades or Atlantius. (Ov. Met. iv. 368; Hygin. Fab. 271.) He had inherited the beauty of both his parents, and was brought up by the nymphs of Mount Ida. In his fifteenth year he went to Caria; in the neighbourhood of Halicarnassus he laid down by the well Salmacis. The nymph of the well fell in love with him, and tried to win his affections, but in vain.