brought to the especial notice of the authorities at home by Lord Monck, the governor-general (Despatch No. 53, 14 June 1866), who was so impressed with the value of MacDougall's work in the organisation of the militia and volunteers that, on leaving Canada, he wrote officially to thank him for having 'laid the foundation of a military system inexpensive, unoppressive, and efficient,' and sent a copy to the home authorities. During MacDougall's service on the staff' in Canada he lectured on military subjects from time to time, and published a pamphlet on the 'Defence of Canada.'
Returning to England in April 1869 he wrote 'The Army and its Reserves,' and was much occupied with the then burning question of army reform. In October 1871 he was appointed deputy inspector-general of the auxiliary forces at headquarters. He presided over Cardwell's 'Localisation Committee' in that year, one of the most important which have ever sat at the war office, whose report, generally adopted, proposed by the fusion of the regular, reserve, and auxiliary forces under the generals commanding districts, to form one army for defence under the Commander-in-chief and by the institution of linked battalions, to have always one at home and one abroad, with depot centres for enlisting and training recruits.
For five years from April 1873 MacDougall was head of the intelligence branch of the war office, at first as deputy adjutant-general, and afterwards as deputy quartermaster-general. Created a K.C.M.G. on 30 May 1877, he was a year later appointed to the command in North America, just at a time when relations with Russia were strained after the Russo-Turkish war. He undertook to have ten thousand trained and disciplined Canadian volunteers available for service wherever required, in a few weeks after the offer of their service was accepted, thus instituting a valuable precedent which has since been followed, not only by Canada, but by most of the self-governing colonies — notably in the recent South African troubles — to the great advantage of the empire.
MacDougall returned to England in May 1883, and retired from the active list in July 1885. He died at his residence, Melbury Lodge, Kingston Hill. Surrey, on 28 Nov. 1894, and was buried at East Putney cemetery, the sergeants of the Kingston depot carrying his body to the grave. He was twice married: first, in 1844, to Louisa Augusta (d. 1856), third daughter of Sir William Francis Patrick Napier; and, secondly, in 1860, to Marianne Adelaide, who survived him, daughter of Philip John Miles of Leigh Court, Somerset. There was no issue of either marriage. A miniature of Sir Patrick MacDougall by Notman of Montreal, Canada, is in Lady MacDougall's possession.
In addition to the works already mentioned, and many articles in the reviews and magazines, MacDougall was the author of the following: 'Emigration: its Advantages to Great Britain and her Colonies, together with a detailed Plan for the Promotion of the proposed Railway between Halifax and Quebec, by means of Colonization,' London, 1848, 8vo; 'Modern Infantry Tactics,' London, 1873, 8vo; 'Short Service Enlistment and the Organisation of our Infantry as illustrated by Recent Events,' Edinburgh, 1883, 8vo.[War Office Records ; obituary notice in Times of 30 Nov. 1894; Despatches; Army Lists ; private information.]
MACFIE, ROBERT ANDREW (1811-1893), free-trade advocate, son of John Macfie, sugar refiner, of Leith, by Alison, second daughter of William Thorburn, was born at Leith on 4 Oct. 1811. Educated at the high schools of Leith and Edinburgh, and at the university of Edinburgh, he entered, in 1827, his father's business, of which about ten years later he established a branch at Liverpool. There he co-operated with Leone Levi in founding the chamber of commerce, and was elected trustee of the Exchange. He retired from business about 1863 and devoted the rest of his life to public objects. As member for Leith Burghs in the parliament of 1868-74, he made himself conspicuous by his uncompromising advocacy of free trade in inventions, proposing a system of 'national recompenses' in lieu of patents. He also agitated for the abridgment of authors' copyrights. These extreme views he combined with an earnest solicitude for the consolidation and defence of the empire, which rendered him a determined opponent of all tampering with the Union, and a pioneer of imperial federation. He died at his country seat, Dreghorn, near Edinburgh, on 16 Feb. 1893. He was F.R.C.I. and F.R.S.E., and a Knight Commander of the Hawaian Order of Kalakaua.
Macfie married in 1840 Caroline Eliza, daughter of John Eastin of Conrance Hill, Dumfries.Macfie published : 1. 'The Patent Question: a solution of difficulties by abolishing or shortening the Inventor's monopoly and instituting National Recompenses,' London, 1863, 8vo. 2. 'Recent Discussions on the