bishop unsuccessfully defended the claim of the incumbent. In the course of the suit he summoned the cardinal to defend his own right, and on his neglect delivered the office to the king's nominee, whom he finally instituted, when the suit was decided against himself. At the same time some of Bokyngham's appointments were made in accordance with the King's will. Thus, in 1393, he gave a prebend to Roger Walden, Richard's secretary, afterwards made treasurer and archbishop; and the gift of another prebend in 1395 to Thomas Haxey, agent of the Earl of Nottingham, must also be considered as due to court influence in spite of the part afterwards taken by Haxey in the parliament of 1397. Bokyngham, however, had shown some independence of action, enough probably to rouse the king's dislike. Richard may also have desired the rich see of Lincoln for his cousin, Henry Beaufort, as a means of binding that branch of the house of Lancaster closely to himself, so as to counterbalance the influence of the Earl of Derby. Boniface IX was in such need of English help that he willingly lent himself to do the king's pleasure, and in 1397 translated Bokyngham to the see of Lichfield. Indignant at being thus removed to a far less wealthy and important bishopric than that he had held so long, Bokyngham refused to be translated. He retired to the monastery of Christ Church at Canterbury, where he died 10 March 1398. He was a benefactor to his cathedral church and to New College, Oxford, and also took part in building Rochester bridge.
[Anglia Sacra, i. 49, 449, 663; Le Neve's Fasti; Knighton's Twysden, 2627-2668; Walsingham, 1. 298, ii. 66, 228; Fasciculi Zizaniorum. 286, 334; Foxe's Acts and Monuments, i. 607; Bokyngham's Register, Hutton extr., Harleian MS 952.]
BÖLCKOW, HENRY WILLIAM FERDINAND (1806–1878), ironmaster, the son of Heinrich Bölckow, of Varchow, in the grand-duchy of Mecklenburg, by his wife Caroline Dussher, was born at Sulten, in Mecklenburg, 8 Dec. 1806. About 1821 his parents placed him in a merchant's office at Rostock. There he made the acquaintance of a gentleman at Newcastle-on-Tyne; at his suggestion came to England, and went into business with him in 1827. He liked England; was made a naturalised British subject; in 1841 selected the town of Middlesborough as the seat of his future operations; entered into partnership with Mr. John Vaughan; erected blast furnaces and commenced the manufacture of iron. Soon after this period Mr. Vaughan discovered the Cleveland ironstone mines. The success of their business in a short time enabled them to multiply their works: they acquired collieries, limestone quarries, machine works, gasworks, and brickfields; and Middlesborough became a centre of such great importance that it received a charter of incorporation in 1853. Bölckow was elected the first mayor. The population of the town had then risen to 40,000, and the production of ironstone to 4,000,000 tons per annum. Bölckow presented to the inhabitants the Albert Park, at a cost of more than 20,000l. (11 Aug. 1868). In the following year he spent 7,000l. in the erection of the St. Hilda's schools. When the town was granted parliamentary representation, Bölckow was unanimously elected the first member, 16 Nov. 1868, and held that position until his death. In 1871 the firm of Bölckow & Vaughan was formed into a limited liability company with a capital of 3,500,000l., the founder of the business becoming chairman of the company. Bölckow collected a fine gallery of pictures, nearly all of them being by living French and English artists (Athenæum, 22 Nov. 1873, pp. 664–6). He died at Ramsgate 18 June 1878, and was buried in Marton churchyard on 22 June. He married first, in 1841, Miriam, widow of C. Hay, who died in 1842, and secondly, in 1851, Harriet, only daughter of James Farrar, of Halifax.
[English Cyclopædia, Biography, Supplement, 1872, pp. 273–4; Practical Magazine, i. 81–90 (1873), with portrait; Times, 19 June 1878, p. 11, col. 4; Illustrated London News, lxxii. 613 (1878).]
BOLD, HENRY (1627–1683), poetical writer, was born in 1627, and was a descendant of the ancient Lancashire family of Bold of Bold Hall. He was the fourth son of Captain William Bold of Newstead in Hampshire. He was educated at Winchester School; thence went to Oxford, and in 1645 was elected a probationer fellow of New College. From this position he was dislodged in 1648 by the parliamentary visitors, and he then settled in London, and is described as of the Examiner's Office in Chancery.' He died in Chancery Lane on 23 Oct. 1683, and was buried at West Twyford near Acton. His books, which are of exceptional rarity, are as follows: 1. 'Wit a Sporting in a Pleasant Grove of New Fancies.' By H. B., London, 1657. This was considered by Freeling to be the rarest book he had. Prefixed is what professes to be a portrait of the author, but which was really engraved as that of Christian Ravus, or Ravius, an orientalist and friend of Ussher. It is found in his 'Discourse