and the holy example of the royal chaplain. After the battles of Cressy and Neville's Cross he was appointed one of the commissioners to treat of peace with King Philip.
Archbishop Stratford died 23 Aug. 1348, and the chapter of Canterbury, thinking to anticipate the wishes of the king, elected Bradwardine to the vacant see without waiting for the congé d'élire. The king, however, was offended by the irregularity, and requested the pope to set aside the election and appoint John of Ufford by provision. The appointment was merely a device in order to vindicate his own right of nomination, which had been infringed by the premature action of the chapter; for John of Ufford was aged and paralytic, and died of the plague before his consecration.
After the death of John of Ufford the chapter applied for the congé d'élire, which was sent with the recommendation to elect Bradwardine. The pope, Clement VI, also issued a bull in which he affected to supersede the election of the chapter, and appointed Thomas by provision. Bradwardine was on the continent at the time of his election, and repaired without delay to the papal court at Avignon for consecration, which took place 19 July 1349. The pope was so completely in the power of Edward at this time that he had once bitterly remarked, if the King of England were to ask him to make a bishop of a jackass, he could not refuse. The cardinals had resented the saying, and one of them, Hugo, cardinal of Tudela, a kinsman of the pope, had the ill taste to make the consecration of Bradwardine an occasion for indulging their spleen. In the midst of the banquet given by the pope, the doors of the hall being suddenly thrown open a clown entered seated upon a jackass and presented a humble petition that he might be made archbishop of Canterbury. Considering the European reputation of Bradwardine for learning and piety, the joke was remarkably unsuitable; the pope rebuked the offender, and the rest of the cardinals marked their displeasure by vying with one another in the respect which they paid to the new archbishop.
Although the Black Death was now raging in England, Bradwardine hastened thither. He landed at Dover on 19 Aug., did homage to the king at Eltham, and received the temporalities from him on the 22nd. Thence he went to London, and lodged at La Place, the residence of the Bishop of Rochester in Lambeth. On the morning after his arrival he had a feverish attack, which was attributed to fatigue after his journey, but in the evening tumours under the arms and other symptoms of the deadly plague which was then ravaging London made their appearance, and on the 26th the archbishop died. Notwithstanding the infectious nature of the disease, the body was removed to Canterbury and buried in the cathedral.
His works are:
- 'De Causâ Dei contra Pelagium et de virtute causarum,' edited by Sir Henry Savile, London, 1618.
- 'Tractatus de proportionibus,' Paris, 1495.
- 'De quadraturâ, circuli,' Paris, 1495.
- 'Arithmetica speculativa,' Paris, 1502.
- 'Geometria speculativa,' Paris, 1530.
- 'Ars Memorativa,' manuscript in the Sloane collection, British Museum, No. 3744. This last is an attempt at a plan for aiding the memory by the method of mentally associating certain places with certain ideas or subjects, or the several parts of a discourse.
[Sir Henry Savile, in the preface to his edition of Bradwardine's work De Causâ Dei contra Pelagium, has collected all the notices of his life, which are but scanty. See also Birchington and William of Dene, Hist. Roff., and William de Chambre, Hist. Dunelm., in Wharton's Anglia Sacra, vol. i.; Hook's Lives of the Archbishops, vol. iv.]
BRADY, Sir ANTONIO (1811-1881), admiralty official, was born at Deptford on 10 Nov. 1811, being the eldest son of Anthony Brady of the Deptford victualling yard, then storekeeper at the Royal William victualling yard, Plymouth, by his marriage, on 20 Dec. 1810, with Marianne, daughter of Francis Perigal and Mary Ogier. He was educated at Colfe's school, Lewisham, and then entered the civil service as a junior clerk in the Victoria victualling yard, Deptford, on 29 Nov. 1828, and, having served there and at Plymouth and Portsmouth, was, through the recommendation of Sir James Graham, promoted to headquarters at Somerset House as a second-class clerk in the accountant-general's office on 26 June 1844. He was gradually promoted until in 1864 he became registrar of contracts, and having subsequently assisted very materially in reorganising the office, he was made the first superintendent of the admiralty new contract department on 13 April 1869, when an improved salary of 1,000l. a year was allotted to him. He held this appointment until 31 March 1870, when he retired on a special pension. He was knighted by the queen at Windsor on 23 June 1870.
After his retirement Sir Antonio devoted himself to social, educational, and religious reform. Having taken a great interest in the preservation of Epping Forest for the people, he was appointed a judge in the 'Verderer's court for the forest of Epping.' He was