volved divine foreordination, but assigning to man a power of distinguishing good and evil which threw on him the responsibility of his actions. The life of Charnock presents a fair picture, for no one has ever questioned the calmness consistency, and elevation of character which it shows throughout. The esteem of his editors, Messrs. Adams and Veal, was shown in their long labour of love, involved in copying and editing from his manuscripts two great folio volumes. More modem editions of his writings are those published in 1816 in 9 vols. 8vo, with preface, &c., by the Rev. Edward Parsons of Leeds, and that of 1860 in Nichols's 'Puritan Divines,' with life of the author, and introduction by Professor James McCosh, LL.D., now president of Princeton College, New Jersey.
[Calamy's Nonconformists' Memorial, vol. i.; Neal's History of the Puritans, vol. iv.; McCosh's edition of Charnock's Works; Wood's Athenæ Oxon. ed. Bliss, iii. 1234-6.]
CHARNOCK, THOMAS (1524?–1581), alchemist, was born in the Isle of Thanet, Kent, in 1524 or 1525, one of his fragments being dated 1574, 'the 50 yeare of my age.' After travelling all over England in quest of knowledge, he fixed his residence at Oxford, and there fell in with a noted chemist named 'James S., a spiritual man living' at Salisbury, who made him his operator, and dying about 1554bequeathed to him the secret of the philosopher's stone. Through the firing, however, of his apparatus on 1 Jan. 1555 ('the omen worse than the accident,' remarks Fuller), the fruit of his labours perished; and his renewed operations were again frustrated by being interrupted within one month of their (computed) success, when in 1557 he was impressed for the relief of Calais; whereupon he took a hatchet (as he tells us) and
With my worke made such a furious faire,
That the Quintessence flew forth in the aire.
Charnock married, in 1562, one Agnes Norden, and settled at Stockland-Bristol in Somersetshire, whence he removed to Comadge in the same county. There he fitted up a laboratory, and pursued his experiments until his death in April 1581. Charnock was buried in Otterhampton Church, near Bridgwater. He wrote 'The Breviary of Naturall Philosophy,' a fantastic little treatise on alchemy, composed in old English verse in 1557, and included in Ashmole's 'Theatrum Chemicum.' He styles himself in the title an 'unlettered Scholar,' and 'Student in the most worthy Scyence of Astronomy and Philosophy.' In the same collection are contained 'Ænigma ad Alchimiam' (1572), Ænigma de Alchimia,' with a few fragments copied from Charnock's handwriting on the flyleaves of his books. Several others of his works enumerated by Wood (Athenæ Oxon. iii. 1236, ed. Bliss) have remained inedited, among them 'A Booke of Philosophie, dedicated to Queen Elizabeth in 1506.
[Fuller's Worthies (1811), i. 507; Anglorum Speculum, p. 413; Black's Cat. Ashmol. MSS.]
CHARPENTIÈRE. [See Carpentière and Carpentiere.]
CHARRETIE, ANNA MARIA (1819–1875), miniature and oil painter, was born at Vauxhall on 5 May 1819. Her father, Mr. Kenwell, was an architect and surveyor. At the age of thirteen, on quitting school, she began to study drawing under Valentine Bartholomew [q. v.] Her earliest effort in art was in flower-painting, and she exhibited for the first time at the Royal Academy in 1843. In 1841 Miss Kenwell married Captain John Charretie, of the Hon. East India Company's service. She had at the Royal Academy in 1852 two portraits in oil-colours, which were named 'Emily' and 'Sara.' In 1868 her husband died, when Mrs. Charretie, thrown entirely on her own resources, took to the serious study of oil-painting, and made copies of several pictures in the National Gallery, London. She died suddenly from heart disease at her residence, Horton Cottage, Campden Hill, Kensington, on 5 Oct. 1875. In the course of her artistic career Mrs. Charretie sent to the Royal Academy forty miniatures, &c.; to the British Institution four; and thirty-two to Suffolk Street. She was also a constant exhibitor at the Dudley Gallery and frequently in the provinces. In 1870 appeared 'Lady Betty' and 'A Stone in her Shoe;' in 1871, 'Lady Teazle, behind the Screen;' in 1878, 'Lady Betty's Maid;' and 'Mistress of herself tho' China fall,' her last work, in 1875.
[Redgrave's Dictionary of Artists, 1878; Clayton's English Female Artists, 1876; Graves's Dictionary of Artists, 1884.]
CHARTERIS, FRANCIS (1675–1732), colonel, notorious criminal, son of John, second son of Sir John Charteris of Amisfield, was born in 1675. On the death of his uncle without male issue he became male representative of the family of Amisfield, but the estate passed to his cousin Elizabeth, sole heiress of his uncle. Her son, Thomas Hogg, assumed the name of Charteris, and became the ancestor of the family of Aimisfield in Dumfriesshire, but Colonel Charteris also gave the name of Amisfield to the property