Page:Dictionary of National Biography volume 12.djvu/442

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annuity. In 1824 he published his tragedy, ‘The Czar,’ which had got as far as a rehearsal fifty years before. Its reception was good enough to induce him to publish in 1826 his ‘Literary and Miscellaneous Memoirs,’ followed by a second volume including his travels. He died in the Strand 15 Dec. 1826. He is described as being ‘a sort of twin brother’ of Garrick, both in mind and body. He had a talent for acting, and was a lively, cultivated, and volatile person. His friend, George Dyer, speaks favourably of the generosity of his feelings, and adds that he was strictly temperate, living chiefly on very small quantities of turnips, roasted apples, and coffee, and never drinking wine. He was ‘cupped sometimes twice a day;’ yet he lived to be eighty-four.

[Brief Memoirs, prefixed by John Bowyer Nichols to Literary and Miscellaneous Memoirs by J. Cradock, 4 vols. 1828. The four volumes include all Cradock's works as mentioned above. His own Memoirs in the first volume are a rambling collection of reminiscences, some of which, especially of Goldsmith and Johnson, are interesting.]

L. S.

CRADOCK, MARMADUKE (1660?–1716), painter (erroneously called ‘Luke’ by Walpole), was born at Somerton, near Ilchester, Somersetshire, about 1660, and was sent to London. After the expiration of an apprenticeship to a house-painter, he became a skilful painter from nature of animals, birds, and still life, but did not meet with success, and worked for dealers. He died in March 1716, and was buried on 24 March in St. Mary's, Whitechapel, having resided in Colchester Street. After his death the merits of his pictures were recognised, and they rose in value. Some very spirited groups of birds were engraved and published in 1740–3 by Josephus Sympson. Walpole praises some pictures by Cradock. One is at Knowsley.

[Redgrave's Dict. of English Artists; Nagler's Künstler-Lexikon; Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting, ed. Dallaway and Wornum; Sarsfield Taylor's State of the Arts in Great Britain and Ireland; Scharf's Catalogue of the Pictures at Knowsley Hall; Registers of St. Mary's, Whitechapel.]

L. C.

CRADOCK, MATTHEW (d. 1641), first governor of the Massachusetts Company, was of a Staffordshire family. One Matthew (son of George) Cradock of Stafford was mayor of that town in 1614; married Elizabeth Fowler of Harnedge Grange, Shropshire, 28 April 1612; built a mansion on the site of Caverswall Castle, Staffordshire; and had a son George, who entered the Inner Temple in 1632, and died in 1643. The identity of this Matthew Cradock with the colonial merchant is possible. In 1618 the latter was settled in London, and is described as an 'adventurer' trading to the East Indies. He purchased 2,000l. stock in the East India Company in 1628. When the company for colonising Massachusetts was formed (4 March 1627-8), Cradock, who subscribed largely to the funds, was chosen the first governor on 13 May 1628. He was very zealous in the performance of his duties; sent John Endicott to represent the company in the colony, and in a letter to Endicott dated 16 Feb. 1628-9, 'from my house in St. Swithen's Lane, near London Stone,' warned the colonists against the peaceful advances of the Indians, and recommended them to employ themselves in building ships. In 1629 the government perceived signs of prosperity in the Massachusetts Company, and Cradock, a strong parliamentarian, was resolved that Charles I should take no share of the profits. He therefore recommended the transference of the headquarters of the company to New England. John Winthrop was elected governor in his place, and sailed to Massachusetts at the close of 1629. Cradock, who took leave of the emigrants off the Isle of Wight, remained behind to assist the company in England, but sent servants and agents and secured a plantation for himself at Medford. 'On the east side of Mistick river is Mr. Cradock's plantation, where he hath impaled a park, where he keeps his cattle till he can store it with deer. Here likewise he is at charges of building ships. The last year one was upon the stocks of a hundred tons. That being finished, they are to build one twice the burden' (Wood, New England's Prospect, 1633, cap. x.) In 1630 Cradock and others petitioned the council for permission to export provisions freely to the colonists, who were represented as being in great straits from want of food and the attacks of the Indians, 29 Sept. 1630 (Cal. State Papers, Colonial, 1574-1660, p. 121). Six letters written by Cradock to Winthrop in 1636 show the value attached to Cradock's advice and monetary aid. In one letter Cradock promises 50l. to the projected Harvard College. At the close of 1640 Cradock was returned as M.P. for London to the Long parliament. In the opening session he denounced the king's plan of fortifying the Tower, and declared that the city would not contribute to the taxes till the royalist garrison was removed. On 4 May 1641 he announced a rumour that the army in the north was being armed with a view to active service. Ten days later he was on a committee