and Russians, from 1756 to 1763,’ which he completed with the assistance of his brother Robert, and published in 1787. He accompanied the Duke of York to the Netherlands as aide-de-camp, and was at once attached to the Austrian headquarters as representative of the English commander-in-chief. With the Austrian staff he was present at all the earlier battles of the war, including Neerwinden, Raismes, Famars, Cæsar's Camp, Landrecies, Roubaix, and Lannoy, was promoted for his services to the rank of major in May 1793, and lieutenant-colonel in February 1794. In the middle of 1794 he left the Austrian headquarters and was appointed deputy adjutant-general to the English army. In this capacity he equally distinguished himself, especially by one daring charge, when with but two squadrons of dragoons he took three guns and one thousand prisoners. He had been so useful at the Austrian headquarters during the campaign that in 1795, when the English army evacuated the continent, he was sent on a special mission to the headquarters of the Austrians. He was an acute observer, and his reports are most valuable historical documents. They are preserved in the Record Office, and Mr. C. A. Fyffe has made copious use of them in his ‘History of Modern Europe.’ Craufurd took his part in the battles of Wetzlar, Altenkirchen, Nordlingen, Neumarkt, and finally of Amberg, where he was so severely wounded in August 1796 that he was invalided home. His wound prevented him from ever going on active service again, but he was promoted colonel on 26 Jan. 1797, and major-general on 25 Sept. 1803. He was lieutenant-governor of Tynemouth and Cliff Fort from 1796 till death, and deputy quartermaster-general at the Horse Guards (1795–1799). He was elected to the House of Commons as M.P. for East Retford in October 1806. This election was due to his marriage, on 7 Feb. 1800, to Lady Anna Maria, daughter of the second earl of Harrington, and widow of Thomas, third duke of Newcastle, which secured for him the great Newcastle influence. He resigned his seat in 1812, after the fourth duke had come of age, and retired from public life. He was made colonel of the 2nd dragoon guards in 1807, and promoted lieutenant-general on 25 July 1810, and was made a G.C.B. 27 May 1820, on the occasion of the coronation of George IV. He died on 26 March 1821, and left no children. His wife, the Dowager Duchess of Newcastle, survived him thirteen years. He published nothing except the above-mentioned translation.
[Royal Military Calendar, and Craufurd's despatches in the Record Office.]
CRAUFURD, JAMES, Lord Ardmillan (1805–1876), Scottish judge, eldest son of Major Archibald Clifford Blackwell Craufurd of Ardmillan, Ayrshire, by Jane, daughter of John Leslie, was born at Havant in Hampshire in 1805, and educated at the academy at Ayr, at the burgh school, Edinburgh, and at the universities of Glasgow and Edinburgh. In 1829 he passed his examination in Roman and Scotch law, and became an advocate. His progress at the bar was not at all rapid, but he nevertheless acquired a considerable criminal business both in the court of justiciary and in the church courts. He never had much civil business, although he could address juries very effectively. On 14 March 1849 he became sheriff of Perthshire, and four years later, 16 Nov. 1853, was appointed solicitor-general for Scotland under the administration of Lord Aberdeen. He was nominated to the post of a lord of the court of session 10 Jan. 1855, when he took the courtesy title of Lord Ardmillan, after the name of his paternal estate. On 16 June in the same year he was also appointed a lord of justiciary, and held these two places until his death. His speeches and other literary utterances are not great performances, and his lectures to young men on ecclesiastical dogmas are open to hostile criticism, but they bear the cardinal merit of sincerity and are not without literary polish. In the court of justiciary his speeches were effective and eloquent of expression, which he had cultivated by a rather discursive study of English and Scotch poetical literature. The best remembered of his judgments is that which he delivered in connection with the well-known Yelverton case, when, on 3 July 1862, acting as lord ordinary of the outer house of session, he pronounced against the legality of the supposed marriage between Maria Theresa Longworth and Major William Charles Yelverton (Cases in Court of Session, Longworth v. Yelverton, 1863, pp. 93–116; Shaw, Digest, p. 97, &c.). He died of cancer of the stomach at his residence, 18 Charlotte Square, Edinburgh, on 7 Sept. 1876. He married in 1834 Theodosia, daughter of James Balfour. This lady, who before her marriage was known as Beauty Balfour, died on 29 Dec. 1883, aged 70.
[Journal of Jurisprudence, xx. 538–9 (1876); Scotsman, 8 Sept. 1876, p. 5; Law Times, 16 Sept. 1876, p. 344; Times, 9 Sept. 1876, p. 8; Graphic, 23 Sept. 1876, p. 308, portrait; Illustrated London News, 23 Sept. 1876, p. 284, portrait.]
CRAUFURD, JOHN WALKINSHAW (1721–1793), twenty-first laird of Craufurdland, Ayrshire, son of John Craufurd of