professor of astronomy at Cambridge; Elizabeth; Francis, F.R.S., university lecturer in botany at Cambridge; Leonard, captain, R.E.; Horace, civil engineer.
There are portraits in possession of the family by G. Richmond (water-colour, 1838); by Samuel L. Lawrence (chalk, 1853; another chalk drawing by Lawrence, probably of the same date, belongs to Professor Hughes of Cambridge); by T. Woolner, R.A. (bust, 1869); oil-painting by W. Ouless, 1875 (replica at Christ College, Cambridge, etching by Rayon). An oil-painting by W. B. Richmond (1879) belongs to the university of Cambridge, and one by the Hon. John Collier (1881) to the Linnean Society (replica of the last in possession of the family; etching by L. Flameng). There is also a lithograph (1851) in the Ipswich British Association series. A statue by Joseph Boehm, R.A., is in the Natural History Museum, and a medallion by the same is to be placed in Westminster Abbey. A plaque modelled by T. Woolner, made by Josiah Wedgwood & Sons, is on Darwin's rooms in Christ's College.
A complete list of Darwin's works, including his publications in scientific journals, is given in the life by his son. His chief publications were:
- 'Narrative of the Surveying Voyages of H.M.S. Adventure and Beagle …' 1832–6; 'Journal and Remarks,' by C. Darwin, form the third volume. A second edition called 'Journal of Researches into the Natural History and Geology of the Countries visited during the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle,' appeared in 1845, and a third, called 'A Naturalist's Voyage,' in 1860.
- 'Zoology of the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle,' 1840, edited by Darwin, who wrote a geological introduction to part i. ('Fossil Mammalia,' by R. Owen), and added a 'Notice of their Habits and Range' to part ii. ('Mammalia,' by G. R. Waterhouse).
- 'The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs' (being the first part of the 'Geology of the Voyage of the Beagle') 1842.
- 'Geological Observations on the Volcanic Islands visited' (second part of the 'Geology,' &c.), 1844.
- 'Geological Observations on South America' (being the third part of the 'Geology,' &c.), 1846.
- 'A Monograph of the Fossil Lepapidæ or Pedunculated Cirripedes of Great Britain,' 1851 (Palæontographical Society).
- 'Monograph of the Tubeless Cirripedia, with figures of all the species' (Roy. Society, 1851 and 1854).
- 'Monograph of the Fossil Balanidæ and Verrucidæ of Great Britain' (Palæontographical Society), 1854.
- 'On the Origin of Species by means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life,' 1859.
- 'On the various Contrivances by which Orchids are fertilized by insects,' 1862.
- 'The Movements and Habits of Climbing Plants,' 1875.
- 'The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication,' 1868.
- 'The Descent of Man and Selection in relation to Sex,' 1871.
- 'The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals,' 1872.
- 'The effects of Cross and Self Fertilization in the Vegetable Kingdom,' 1876.
- 'The Power of Movement in Plants,' 1880.
- 'The Formation of Vegetable Mould through the action of Worms, with observations on their habits.'
['Charles Darwin,' by Dr. Asa Gray, Nature, June 4, 1874, forming part of a series of papers on 'Scientific Worthies.' 'Charles Darwin. Eine biographische Skizze,' by Prof. W. Preyer, published in the German periodical, Kosmos, in February 1879. The number of Kosmos is a 'Gratulationsheft zum siebzigsten Geburtstage Ch. Darwins.' The sketch of Darwin's life is valuable independently of other merits, because he supplied the chief facts to the author. It also contains a nearly complete list of Darwin's published works up to 1879. 'Darwin considéré au point de vue des causes de son succès et de l'importance de ses travaux,' by M. Alph. de Candolle. Archives des Sciences de la Bibliothèque Universelle, tome vii., Mai 1882. 'Charles Darwin,' Nature Series, 1882, containing Introductory Notice by T. H. Huxley; Life and Character, by G. J. Romanes; Work in Geology, by A. Geikie; Botany, by W. T. Thiselton Dyer; Zoology and Psychology, by G. J. Romanes. 'Charles Darwin; a paper contributed to the Transactions of the Shropshire Archæological Society,' by Edward Woodall, 1884; Ernst Krause's Charles Darwin und sein Verhältniss zu Deutschland, Leipzig, 1885; Grant Allen's Charles Darwin (English Worthies Series), London, 1885; Life and Letters of Charles Darwin, including an autobiographical chapter, edited by his son, Francis Darwin, London, 1887.]
DARWIN, ERASMUS (1731–1802), physician, was the descendant of a Lincolnshire family. A William Darwin (d. 1644) possessed a small estate at Cleatham, and was yeoman of the armoury at Greenwich to James I and Charles I. His son William (b. 1620) served in the royalist army, and afterwards became a barrister and recorder of Lincoln and married the daughter of Erasmus Earle, serjeant-at-law [q.v.] His eldest son, a third William, married the heiress of Robert Waring of Wilsford, Nottinghamshire, who also inherited the manor of Elston, still in possession of the family. The third William had two sons, William and Robert, of whom Robert was educated for the bar, but retired to Elston upon his marriage. He was a member of the Spalding Club. He had four sons and a daughter. The eldest son, Robert