as living in retirement in the island of Lundy, which had been held for the king during the war, but was recovered by its owner in 1647 (A brief Declaration of the Treaty concerning Lundy, 4to, 1647). He was there in 1651, as a curious letter to him from a royalist privateer who had captured one of his ships proves (Mercurius Politicus, 26 June to 3 July 1651, p. 888). About two years later Dorothy Osborne writes to Temple that she is told that Lord Saye ‘has writ a romance since his retirement in the Isle of Lundy’ (Letters of Dorothy Osborne, p. 162, 1st ed.) The references in his pamphlets prove that he lived at Broughton during the latter part of the protectorate. He published two tracts against the quakers entitled: 1. ‘Folly and Madness made Manifest: or some things written to show how contrary to the Word of God, &c., the Doctrines and Practices of the Quakers are,’ Oxford, 1659. 2. ‘The Quaker's Reply Manifested to be Railing;’ this is appended to the former. A royalist agent describes Saye in 1658 as favourable to the king, but demanding the confirmation of the articles agreed on at the treaty of Newport (Clarendon State Papers, iii. 392). Saye took his seat in the House of Lords at the opening of the Convention parliament on 25 April 1660, was appointed a member of the privy council in June 1660, and, according to Collins, lord privy seal (Peerage, vii. 22). He was also one of the council of the colonies, appointed 1 Dec. 1660, and on 10 July 1661 wrote to the governor of Massachusetts expressing his affection for the colony, and saying that he had used his influence both with king and council to advance their interest. ‘I was loth to omit writing because it may be my last, my glass being almost run out, and I returning home’ (Hutchinson, History of Massachusetts, 3rd edit., i. 202). Saye died on 14 April 1662, and was buried at Broughton. He married, about 1602, Elizabeth, daughter of John Temple of Stow, Buckinghamshire, who died in 1648 (Doyle, iii. 272; Beesley, History of Banbury, p. 475).
Clarendon gives two long characters of Saye (Rebellion, iii. 26, vi. 409); one by Arthur Wilson is contained in his ‘History of James I,’ 1653, p. 161, and a panegyric in verse is printed in W. Mercer's ‘Angliæ Speculum,’ 1646. His usual nickname was ‘Old Subtlety,’ which well expresses his astuteness as a parliamentary tactician and his ability in council.
A portrait of Saye is preserved at Broughton, and numerous engravings are contained in the Sutherland ‘Clarendon’ in the Bodleian (Catalogue of the Sutherland Collection, 1837, ii. 90). Wood attributes either to Saye or to Nathaniel Fiennes a pamphlet published in 1654, entitled ‘The Scots' Design discovered,’ or ‘Vindiciæ Veritatis.’ It contains a statement of the case of the parliament against the Scots, written about 1647, and a vindication of the conduct of Nathaniel Fiennes during the war.
[Doyle's Official Baronage, iii. 271; Collins's Peerage, ed. Brydges, vii. 22; Wood's Athenæ Oxon., ed. Bliss, iii. 546; Walpole's Royal and Noble Authors, ed. Park, iii. 69; Lloyd's State Worthies, 1670, p. 972; Clarendon's Hist. of the Rebellion, ed. Macray.]
FIFE, Sir JOHN (1795–1871), surgeon, was born at Newcastle-on-Tyne in 1795, his father being a medical man of Scotch origin, practising at Newcastle. After qualifying as a member of the London College of Surgeons, he was for a short time an army assistant-surgeon at Woolwich, but returned to Newcastle in 1815, and commenced practice with his father. As a practitioner, and especially as a surgeon, he took a leading position in his town and throughout the northern counties, being remarkable for his punctuality and for the long distances he would ride in all weathers. In 1834 he took an active part in founding the Newcastle School of Medicine, in which he long lectured on surgery, being also surgeon to the Newcastle Infirmary. He was a successful lithotomist and a very cool and confident operator. He became fellow of the College of Surgeons in 1844.
Fife's distinction as a local politician was even greater than his mark as a surgeon. He was an advanced liberal, and in his early days was stigmatised as a chartist. In 1831 he was active in forming the northern political union, which agitated in favour of the Reform Bill. Fife's stirring speeches had a great effect at this time. In 1835 he was elected one of the first members of the new corporation of Newcastle, and was immediately chosen alderman. In 1838–9 he was mayor, and when the chartist outbreak of July 1839 took place he displayed conspicuous courage and good judgment in suppressing it. For this he was knighted in 1840. In 1843 he was again mayor, and presided at a great meeting on 22 Jan. 1843, addressed by Mr. Cobden, in furtherance of the Anti-Cornlaw agitation. He continued a member of the corporation till 1863. He was one of the most influential promoters of the volunteer