Page:Dictionary of National Biography volume 18.djvu/96

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Eversley
Ewart
90

supra, 64, f. 109 b, Bodl. Libr.; Scriptt. Brit. Cat. bk. v. § 40, p. 410) ‘Concordantiæ divinæ Historiæ,’ ‘Legum Medulla’ (poems), and ‘Concordia Decretorum.’

[Authorities cited above.]

R. L. P.

EVERSLEY, Viscount. [See Shaw-Lefevre, Charles, 1794–1888.]

EVESHAM, HUGH of (d. 1287), cardinal, is called Atratus by Latin writers, and Il Naro and Lenoir by the Italian and French. It is possible that this is a translation of the English name Black, but there is no evidence in support of the conjecture, his name never occurring in an English form. He was born at Evesham, educated at both the English universities, and completed his studies in France and Italy. He applied himself especially to mathematics and medicine, and from his proficiency in the latter science acquired the name of 'Phœnix' Certain medical questions being under discussion at Rome about 1280, Evesham was invited to go to Rome and give his opinion by the then pope, either Nicholas III at the close of his pontificate, or Martin IV at the commencement of his. The latter pontiff appointed Evesham his physician, and at his first creation of cardinals, on 23 March 1281, at Orvieto, promoted him to that dignity, with the title of St. Laurence in Lucina. He spent the remainder of his life in Rome, where he acted as proctor for the Archbishop of York. Several letters addressed to him are entered in the register of Archbishop Peckham at Lambeth, and in those of other bishops of his time. Peckham writes to him as an old associate both in the university and at Rome.

He died in 1287, on 27 July, according to the Worcester annalist, who ascribes his death to poison. Tanner gives the date as 23 Sept., but on what authority does not appear.

He was buried in the church of San Lorenzo in Lucina, near the sacristy, but his tomb no longer exists. His ecclesiastical preferments in England were: prebendary of Botevant, York, prebendary of Bugthorpe, 11 Nov. 1279, archdeacon of Worcester, 1276, and rector of Spofforth, Yorkshire.

The books which he is said to have written are as follows: 1. 'De Genealogiis humanis.' 2. 'Canones Medicinales.' 3. 'Problemato.' 4. 'Super Opere febrium Isaac' (incip. 'Quoniam de filii bonitate sicut est'). 5. 'Distinctiones predicabiles.' 6. 'Sermo in Dominica Septuagesimæ.' There is a copy of the last-mentioned in the Bodleian Library (Bodl. MS. 50, f. 299), but the others are not known to be extant.

[Cioconiæ's Vita Pontiff. ii. 239; Pita, Scriptorum Angl. p. 370; Marini, Drgli Archiatri Pontificj, p. 27; Tanner's Bibl. Brit. p. 418; Cardella's Memorie de' Cardinali, i. 22; Annales de Wigornia (Rolls ed.), p. 494; Reg. Epist. J. de Peckham (Rolls ed.), pp. 219, 228, 281, 573, 703, 711, 749, 761; Barth. Cotton (Rolls ed.), p. 181; Le Neve's Fasti, iii. 74, 178; Eloy's Dict. de la Médecine.]

C. T. M.

EVESHAM, WALTER of (13th cent.), Benedictine. [See Odington, Walter.]

EWART, JOSEPH (1759–1792), diplomatist, eldest son of the minister of Troquear in the stewartry of Kirkcudbright, was born on 30 April l759. He was educated at Dumfries and at Edinburgh University, and then acted as travelling tutor to Macdonald of Clanronald. While abroad, Ewart made the acquaintance of Sir John Stepney, British minister at Dresden, and after that diplomatist had been transferred to Berlin, Ewart became in rapid succession his private secretary and then secretary of legation. In this capacity he gave so much satisfaction that after acting as chargé d'affaires from 1787 to 1788, he was, in spite of his youth, appointed envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to the King of Prussia on 5 Aug. 1788. The situation was very difficult, for it was Pitt's design, assisted by Lord Malmesbury, to induce Frederick William of Prussia to intervene in the affairs of Holland; to put down the revolutionary party there; and to re-establish the Prince of Orange aa stadt-holder. This design was carried out, and Ewart obtained much credit for his share in the transactions. Of his subsequent conduct at the court of Berlin there are contradictory reports, for the French revolution commenced in 1789, and partisans and opponents of the English foreign policy of that period represent the minister's behaviour in different lights. Ewart has been accused of adopting too peremptory an attitude towards the King of Prussia and his ministers, of thus alienating them from England. He certainly succeeded, however, in concluding the marriage treaty between the Duke of York and the eldest daughter of the King of Prussia, and received warm acknowledgments from the king. His health breaking down, he resigned on a pension of 1,000l. a year and a promise of tbu order of the Bath. He left Berlin on 3 Nov. 1791. He died at his brother's house in Bladud's Buildings, Bath, on 27 Jan. 1792, and was buried in Bath Abbey, where a tablet is erected to his memory. A statement that he died out of his mind, and another (by Wraxell) that his death was due to foul play of the Empress Catherine, are entirely dis-